Series Vol. 7 , 13 September 2023
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The phenomenon of Asia-African relations has received considerable attention since the start of the 21st century. As China and Japan are two leading Asian donors of Africa, their foreign aid policies are worth analyzing and comparing. Among African countries, Ethiopia is located in the horn of Africa, whose strategic position is relatively significant. In addition, Ethiopia has not been colonized in the history, which makes this case more meaningful. Most of the previous studies have concentrated on either one specific aspect like economic or certain country’s foreign aid policies towards Ethiopia. This research aims to analyze and compare China’s and Japan’s multifaceted foreign aid policies towards Africa and Ethiopia in particular. For this purpose, the primary data and materials have been collected from the official websites, official reports, and previous studies. The result shows that their differences involve political, economic and societal aspects. The Japanese government has tended to design detailed policies, guide companies to invest in Ethiopia and cooperate with the NGOs. On the contrary, China’s policies towards Ethiopia are more general, and the Chinese government has played a leading role in economic aiding than the Japanese government. In terms of the societal aspect, the Chinese government is more tending to cooperate with the Ethiopian government instead of the NGOs.
foreign aid policy, China, Japan, Ethiopia, Africa
1. Chinese Government, http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2021-11/26/content_5653540.htm, last accessed 2022/3/20.
2. Yao S.: Review of Current Trend of International Development Cooperation and Performance of China’s Economic Assistance to Other Developing Countries. International Economic Cooperation, 1, 30-36(2020)
3. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shiryo/hyouka/kunibetu/gai/ethiopia/pdfs/kn09_03_01.pdf, last accessed in 2022/3/20
4. Chinese Ministry of Commerce, http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/aisaiebiya.pdf, last accessed in 2022/3/21
5. Lv Y: The Deepening of Japan’s Interests in Africa and Its Strategic Intentions from “The Nairobi Declaration. West Asia and Africa, 6, 21-34(2016)
6. Huang Z.: The Political Economy of Chinese Aid: A Spatial Analysis of Chinese Aid in Africa. Economy and Politics of the World, 9, 102-127,158-159(2021)
7. Deborah B.: China's development assistance in Africa: nature, object, purpose and scale. In: Editor, Golley,J., Editor, Song Ligang.: The Rising China. Social Sciences Academic Press, 206-229(2012)
8. Fumitaka Furuoka.: Determinants of China’s and Japan’s Foreign Aid Allocations in Africa. African Development Review,3(29), 376-388(2017)
9. Makoto Sato.: History’s Characteristics, Growing Africa-The Perspectives of Japan and China (Reports) (2007). https://www.ide.go.jp/library/Japanese/Publish/Reports/Kidou/pdf/2007_03_03_3_sato_j.pdf, last accessed in 2022/3/20
10. Japan External Trade Organization, http://www.jetro.go.jp, last accessed in 2022/3/20
11. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://www.mofa.go.jp./mofaj/gaiko/oda/bunya/governance/hoshin_1305.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
12. Pan W., Bai R., Lv Y.: The Strategic Evolution of Japan’s ODA to Africa after World War II: From 1.0 to 3.0. Contemporary Economic of Japan 3,1-12(2021)
13. The World Bank, https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/regional-integration/brief/belt-and-road-initiative, last accessed in 2022/3/20
14. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/pm/abe/abe_0118e.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20.
15. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/event/2008/6/1181025_936.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
16. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/afr/af2/et/page24_000188.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
17. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/ethiopia/index.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
18. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press3e_000170.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
19. Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/101_kishida/statement/2021/1127kunji.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
20. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mofa.go.jp/af/af1/page3e_000542.html, last accessed in 2022/3/20
21. Huo J., Tang Q, Xu Y., Yan Z.: The Japanese Prime Minister Kishida Fumio. International Studies Reference 10, 43-48(2021)
22. Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.cn/web/ziliao_674904/wjs_674919/2159_674923/200011/t20001107_10250996.shtml, last accessed in 2022/3/20
23. Forum On China-Africa Cooperation, http://www.focac.org/zywx/zywj/201512/t20151205_8044408.htm, last accessed in 2022/3/20
24. Marek Hanusch.: African Perspectives on China-Africa: Modelling Popular Perceptions and their Economic and Political Determinants. Oxford Development Studies 4, 492-516(2012)
25. Ketema Meskela Daddi., Author Zhang Yongpeng., Author Wen Yaofeng.: The establishment of diplomatic relations and the evolution of relations between China and Ethiopia (1949~1970). West Asia and Africa 5,29-32(2009)
26. Gedion Gamora.: Ethiopia and China Political and Economic Relations: Challenges and prospects after 1991. www.afology.com (2009)
27. Eastern Industry Zone, http://www.e-eiz.com, last accessed in 2022/3/20
28. Qi G: Ethiopia’s Eastern Industry Zone. China Investment (Chinese & English) Z3, 64(2020).
29. The World Bank, https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/regional-integration/brief/belt-and-road-initiative, last accessed in 2022/3/20
30. Wang X.: Cooperation between China and Ethiopia on Jointly Building B&R. International Studies Reference 9, 30-34(2018,).
31. CCTV News, http://news.cctv.com/2020/01/28/ARTIPrmX4KjZJqCquBu2MhBS200128.shtml, last accessed in 2022/3/20.
32. Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, https://www.mfa.gov.cn/web/fyrbt_673021/jzhsl_673025/202102/t20210222_9604767.shtml, last accessed in 2022/3/20.
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.