Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences

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Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Economic Management and Green Development

Series Vol. 44 , 10 November 2023


Open Access | Article

Unemployment in the United States—Economic Inequality in the Context of Industrial-technological Upgrading and Outsourcing in the United States Since the 1990s

Shuhui Wang * 1
1 Arlington Catholic High School

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences, Vol. 44, 40-46
Published 10 November 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Shuhui Wang. Unemployment in the United States—Economic Inequality in the Context of Industrial-technological Upgrading and Outsourcing in the United States Since the 1990s. AEMPS (2023) Vol. 44: 40-46. DOI: 10.54254/2754-1169/44/20232182.

Abstract

There is significant concern that industrial-technological upgrading and outsourcing in the United States have led to increased economic inequality since the 1990s. In the fourth Industrial Revolution, computerization, automation, and artificial intelligence allowed American companies to preserve their technological core competencies and outsource non-core activities to foreign countries. This paper aims to provide the classical vocabulary on this topic, an analysis of the U.S.’s industrial-technological upgrading and outsourcing circumstances, and an explanation of their influence on the widening economic gap since the 1990s. This paper found that the three trends share a synchronous and reinforcing relationship, which can find support in Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory. Businesses that engaged in outsourcing activities benefited financially. While low-skilled and high-skilled workers are both at risk of losing their jobs because of improved technology, the former is more vulnerable. Industrial-technological upgrading facilitates outsourcing, and outsourcing facilitates the former in return. They both contribute to a widening economic gap. This paper was written when many questions arose on the subject. It connects industrial-technological upgrading with outsourcing, which previous research failed to do.

Keywords

industrial-technological upgrading, technological unemployment, automation, outsourcing, economic inequality

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Data Availability

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Volume Title
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Economic Management and Green Development
ISBN (Print)
978-1-83558-109-4
ISBN (Online)
978-1-83558-110-0
Published Date
10 November 2023
Series
Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences
ISSN (Print)
2754-1169
ISSN (Online)
2754-1177
DOI
10.54254/2754-1169/44/20232182
Copyright
© 2023 The Author(s)
Open Access
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated