Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Management Research and Economic Development
Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia
Canh Thien Dang, King's College London
Since it came out, the multiplayer video game Overwatch from Blizzard Entertainment has only had a brief period of success and has been going downhill ever since. This study examines the operative and developing problems in Overwatch 1 and 2 from the consumers' and players' viewpoints to determine their reasons. It then builds a theoretical framework of organizational behavior to explore and explain those identified issues with reputation, customer experience and happiness, customer resonance, and corporate culture compliance. Practical solutions and suggestions that might be helpful for Blizzard Entertainment and further updates on Overwatch are also provided, involving performance management, employee selection, and customer interactions.
Starbucks' growth has slowed in recent years. The "golden decade" of Starbucks is still far away. This article aims to analyze Starbucks China's management's pain points and difficulties and give corresponding suggestions. The analysis in this article comes from texts and data from different sources such as news, periodicals, and Starbucks' official website. The article first described the general situation of Starbucks in China's coffee market, showing how it expanded its stores and developed its brand in China. Then, the article describes Starbucks's four primary pain points and dilemmas in China. The pain points reflect the impact of the external environment on Starbucks' marketing. For example, the market is highly competitive and has regional gaps. This dilemma reflects the effects of Starbucks' internal problems on marketing. For example, staff training is not in place, and online and offline sales development is unbalanced. Therefore, Starbucks still has many deficiencies that need to be improved on the road of Chinese management. Starbucks can only return to the development speed of the "golden decade" by improving these deficiencies. In response to these deficiencies, the article gives four corresponding opinions, which are to expand the business to increase competitiveness; optimize employee incentive system to improve service quality and turnover; increase promotion of coupons to attract more consumers; establish Online communities to increase online sales and maintain their brand image.
During the epidemic, the catering industry in China and even the world has been hit hard, and many offline physical stores have had to close or even permanently close. However, it was Haidilao Enterprises that went against the trend. They adopted the strategy of expand-ing against the movement during the epidemic period. Still, the good times did not last long, which led to the continuous increase in losses of enterprises, and they had to close stores one after another. Finally, the development of Haidilao enterprises was sluggish. As the epidemic gradually receded, we ushered in the post-epidemic era, an opportunity for the development of many catering industries and a challenge for catering enterprises to change themselves. The origin of the problems in the development of the Haidilao enter-prise is internal management and control. This paper will study the internal organizational command and control issues and corresponding strategies of Haidilao enterprises in the post-epidemic era, hoping enterprises can seize the opportunity and return to life.
With the improvement of people's spiritual and cultural needs, cultural and creative industries are rising all over the world. Museums are pioneers and important carriers of cultural and creative industries. A good industrial strategy should be consumer-centric. The Palace Museum has played a leading role in the domestic cultural and creative industry and has successfully attracted many consumers with its excellent marketing concept. However, there are still some shortcomings in the commercialization of museums' creative cultural products. This article takes the Palace Museum as an example to explore the commercialization strategy of the cultural and creative industries. Through literature analysis, this study analyzes the development and industrial strategy of cultural and creative industries and puts forward suggestions to improve the development status of cultural and creative industries. Cultural and creative industries can optimize the product mix from the perspective of customers and design practical products with innovative thinking. The culture and creative industry should deliver third-party services and improve the logistics system. This paper also suggests to use of new media propaganda channels and to pay attention to intelligent propaganda.
This paper mainly focuses on the endowment effect and uses qualitative analysis and literature review to discuss and explain the endowment effect, and analyze the application of the endowment effect in sales, stock, and management. Through these three applications, we can have a good understanding of how the endowment effect works in our lives, which unconsciously influences a lot of our decisions. For some people, such as investors, the endowment effect influences them to make more correct and rational decisions. This paper also mentions some ways to suppress the endowment effect when making decisions. So in short, the endowment effect is a very common emotional bias, which will be explained in the following article.
With the growing openness of China towards the rest of the globe as well as the strengthening of its strong economy, commerce among both the United States and China is growing ever closer and import and export tension is increasing. In designed to safeguard the proportion of its own household products in the global market, the U.S. has incorporated different precautionary equipment and frequently set up a wide variety of technical barriers to trade for our goods, that either hinder the movement of our goods and cause substantial economic losses to our external trade corporate. How to circumvent and eliminate the U.S. technical barriers to trade in the process of foreign trade is a problem that China must face at this stage. This paper examines the effects of U.S. technical barriers on China’s trade and summarizes China’s strategy to cope with the U.S. technological barriers to international trade. Therefore, China should intensify the study of technological obstacles to commerce in the U. S., find effective ways to cross its technical barriers learn from its experience and advanced methods of building technical barriers to trade, establish a technical barrier to trade system with Chinese characteristics, constantly break through other countries' technical barriers to trade, and create a good environment for China's foreign trade.
Looking back to history, scent marketing applications can be traced to 4500 years ago in Ancient Egypt. Scent marketing has emerged as a powerful tool for businesses looking to create memorable experiences for customers. This strategy involves using specific fragrances to influence consumer behaviour, create an emotional connection with the brand and drive sales. In recent years, scent marketing has gained popularity among businesses of all sizes and across various industries. Currently, scent marketing around the world are mostly used in certain areas in business such as chain-hotels, luxurious shopping malls, and high-level cruises. However, whether or not it is effective and should be adapted in other fields like small food and clothing retail, entertainment centers like cinemas, or offices and libraries remains uncertain. By using research from analyses of real applications of scent marketing, interviews with professionals and shop owners, and big data on people's attitudes and changes in popularity, we came to the conclusion that scent marketing has a high application value for those companies that are suitable and innovative. In detail, based on research, we find out that scent marketing has the average effect of improving 17% of sales, 24% of brand image, and 27% of customer satisfaction. Therefore, research on scent marketing based on real-case application analysis for end users emphasizes a research process and an analysis of what kinds of companies are suitable and innovative to apply scent marketing and what effects these companies can expect to get.
CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) plays an extremely important role in the financial sector. However, since the establishment of the model, the discussion and dispute about it have never stopped. It predicts future data through past market data. However, with the deepening of research, people find that the stock returns in the capital market do not conform to CAPM. The results obtained by the capital asset pricing model may be due to the lack of data validity in the market, which leads to its own inability to carry out relevant tests. In different regions, scholars in some regions have also conducted relevant research on the local capital market. They think that CAPM does not conform to their current regional situation.
The discounted cash flow model is a company value evaluation method widely used by many domestic investors when investing company. However, under the background of the epidemic, due to factors like low benchmark interest rates that are not conducive to the valuation of the DCF model, the accuracy of the discounted cash flow model valuation has been questioned. In addition, the DCF model is not entirely applicable to the domestic market because of the multiple systems and the local capital market's imperfections, so the model needs to be improved. In this paper, the existing literature is summarized, and it was found that the time series analysis method can be used, which can predict the company's future cash flow more accurately, instead of the sales ratio analysis method, while the discount rate can be calculated more accurately by substituting each company's beta into the calculation instead of using the company's industry beta.
Over the past two decades, the concept of the meta-universe has gained widespread popularity and has emerged as a leading development direction for the gaming industry. This has led to significant interest from social capital investors. In light of this, this paper examines the development environment of the gaming industry using a PEST analysis approach, with a focus on the political, economic, social, and technological factors that are relevant to the meta-universe. The aim of this analysis is to provide recommendations and strategic guidance for game companies that seek to enter the metaverse industry.
In recent times, the utilization of cryptocurrencies in the Metaverse has garnered increasing attention, with the advent of blockchain technology and the surge in popularity of the Metaverse. This investigation endeavors to ex-amine the implementation of cryptocurrencies in the Metaverse, as well as its influence on the cryptocurrency market and the progression of the Metaverse. This study adopts the method of combining literature review and case analysis, first sorts out the application scenarios of cryptocurrencies in the Metaverse, including transactions, games, virtual assets, etc.; then sum-marizes the application scenarios of cryptocurrencies in the Metaverse through case analysis Advantages and challenges, including decentralization, security, traceability, etc.; Finally, the development trend and prospect of cryptocurrency in the metaverse are discussed, and the impact of this appli-cation on the cryptocurrency market and the development of the metaverse is analyzed. The results of the study show that cryptocurrencies have great application potential in the Metaverse. First of all, the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies can guarantee the security and traceability of transac-tions and assets in the Metaverse. Secondly, the circulation and use of cryp-tocurrencies can also promote economic development and prosperity in the Metaverse. However, the application of cryptocurrencies in the Metaverse al-so faces many challenges, including transaction speed, user experience, and compliance.
In today's world, with the internet and finance closely integrated, the global-ization of cryptocurrency has deepened, prompting people to pay more atten-tion to the impact of cryptocurrency on the entire financial market. This pa-per provides a comprehensive review of relevant literature from five aspects: the development of cryptocurrency, price changes, the impact of cryptocur-rency on the stock market, the impact of cryptocurrency on the banking in-dustry, and the currency and commodity characteristics of cryptocurrency. The author also compares the price curves (in USD) of the S&P 500, ETH, and BTC from March 21, 2022, to March 21, 2023, and hopes to gain in-sights into the relationship between stocks and cryptocurrencies. Our re-search shows that the emergence of cryptocurrency has had a significant im-pact on the financial market, particularly in the banking industry. Although the emergence of cryptocurrency has added vitality to the financial market and increased investment options, the instability of cryptocurrency has also brought risks to investors. As the cryptocurrency market continues to ex-pand, policymakers and investors need to understand its potential impact on traditional financial instruments and the broader economy.
This paper explores the application of cryptocurrencies in Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). After introducing the concepts and historical background of NFTs and cryptocurrencies, the paper analyzes the advantages of using cryptocurrencies in NFTs, including decentralization, security, stable storage value, cross-border payment, low transaction cost, anonymity, programmability, and community support. However, the paper also highlights the shortcomings of this application, such as unclear laws and regulations, price fluctuations, environmental problems, technical obstacles, security risks, intellectual copyright issues, and moral and social issues. To address these challenges, the paper proposes several workarounds, such as using stablecoins to solve volatility problems, providing user-friendly interfaces and educational resources to solve complex problems, and increasing the number of merchants and service providers accepting cryptocurrencies as payment methods to solve the problem of a limitation. Finally, the paper analyzes the industry trend and its potential future direction. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the potential of cryptocurrencies in NFTs and provides insights into the development of this emerging field.
The unforeseen pandemic has significantly influenced the financial market, and has caused major disruptions in the global economy, leading to a sharp decline in stock prices and increased volatility in financial markets. Assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the market is essential for both investors and policymakers. This study recognizes that irrationality exists during the pandemic in investors’ decision-making and find that the efficient market hypothesis does not always hold perfectly. According to the analysis, emotional and cognitive biases play significant roles in investors’ decision-making, especially under uncertainty. Using empirical data from the previous study, the existence of risk aversion, herding behavior, and availability bias during the pandemic is testified. The results suggest that the pandemic has led to an increase in risk aversion among investors, as well as a tendency towards herding behavior in the stock market but not the crypto market. Furthermore, evidence of availability bias is found, with investors placing greater weight on recent news and information related to the pandemic, and making decisions based on that information. These findings have important implications for investment strategy and risk management during a crisis.
Carbon emissions and climate are intricately related. People's activities are growing as a result of advances in science and technology, which raises carbon dioxide emissions. As a result of these greenhouse gases, the atmosphere's ability to dissipate heat will decline, raising global temperatures and making climate change a more serious issue. To achieve sustainable development, people must begin to pay attention to these challenges and strike a balance between the environment and economic progress. This paper introduces the mechanism of emissions trading and the benefits of its operation. In order to discuss the possibility of enabling countries to use emissions trading, this paper uses a non-cooperative game theory model to analyze the choices made by developing and developed countries under the background of the Kyoto Protocol. Combined with the equilibrium obtained by the hypothesized model, some methods and reasons for improving the results are proposed. This paper concludes that both developed and developing countries are more inclined to use emissions trading to achieve emission reduction targets or obtain certain benefits.
This paper provides an overview of the business model of Formula 1 (F1), a premier motorsport racing competition. The main sources of revenue for F1 include TV broadcasting rights, race hosting fees, sponsorship and naming rights, and merchandise sales. In analyzing F1's business model, this paper examines the various revenue streams and the challenges they face. F1 is facing challenges in the area of TV broadcasting rights due to the rise of streaming services and the changing media landscape. Additionally, scheduling conflicts due to the limited time available to hold races are creating tensions between stakeholders. The paper also looks at the impact of sponsorship on F1, including the extension of sponsorship beyond traditional marketing tactics by brands like Rolex and IWC. However, some sponsorship deals have encountered issues, such as Marlboro's association with tobacco and Alfa Romeo's partnership with Stake violating certain countries' laws. It also draws upon a combination of literature review and personal experience to identify key issues and propose potential solutions. By analyzing existing research and drawing upon observations, the paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the business model of Formula 1 and the challenges and opportunities it faces in the current market. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations for addressing these issues, including exploring alternative revenue streams, implementing more flexible scheduling, and ensuring that sponsor partnerships align with F1's values and do not violate local laws.
Nowadays, more and more sports brands appear in the market, and different brand marketing strategies will bring different results. The purpose of this case study is to explore the marketing strategies of Vans and find out its shortcoming. This paper adopts the method of literature analysis. By reviewing and summarizing the papers on the marketing case analysis of Vans or the marketing analysis of fashion sports brands in the past five years, this paper summarizes the marketing strategies of Vans brand in various aspects of disagreement and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various strategies. The findings show that this brand has both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of the product is that it always co-branding with other artists or brands. The disadvantage is the product itself, the price and the way to sell the products. To summarize, Vans can develop an effective strategy by modifying its issues from different sides. The suggestions are that its products need to be more innovative which can get noticed by the public again. Besides, the company should appropriately reduce the price of specific products. Finally, this brand should consider investing more money into the product itself to improve product quality.
Football nowadays is definitely one of the most important ways of entertainment in people’s life. Football leagues such as the Premier League are attracting millions of viewers from all over the world. But when people talk about football, fairness is something that should guarantee to the fans. Thus the UEFA has introduced Financial Fair Play in order to achieve equality in European football clubs’ finance and management. In this investigation, the aim is to research how European football clubs could work under the restrictions of the Financial Fair Play and provide a case study on Manchester City’s breaches in 2023. This paper is to research and compare recent cases of other teams’ violations and estimates the best way European football clubs can survive under the policy, and provided a possible sanction to Manchester’s case, which could be summarised as a 15-to-30-point point deduction and a fine of around $600 million. Thus the UEFA could make it the fairest for every group of clubs and fans and form an equal environment for European Football.
A good marketing strategy is a competitive advantage. This study aims to examine ANTA Company's marketing approach by utilizing literature analysis and integrated analysis methods with data collection. The main areas of focus include product strategy, price strategy, place strategy, promotion strategy and a SWOT analysis to analyze the effects of Anta's marketing approach, identify any shortcomings in the strategy, and provide appropriate recommendations for improvement. From the analysis of Anta’s marketing strategy and the gains of the strategies, the research results show that Anta's marketing plan is primarily aligned with the buying potential of Chinese customers but there are 3 existing problems, such as minimal brand recognition outside China, lack of targeted marketing campaigns, and design issues. This case study provides several suggestions which specifically are brand concept and media, social media topics, measure and optimization, diversification of brand building and differentiation of domestic and foreign markets, innovation, and addressing controversies in response to these problems.
The IAAF World Championships in Athletics (WCH) is one of the biggest sports events with high popularity. However, the influence and economics of WCH still face many challenges. This study discusses the challenges faced by WCH on venue and marketing management and proposes strategies to address these challenges by reviewing the literature on the development and management of WCH and other sports events from the perspectives of venue management and marketing management. In terms of selecting the host city, this study suggests considering the city's size, transportation convenience and its sports spirit and cultural background. Facing the increased demand and heightened expectations for live events and entertainment, multi-purpose venues with diverse attractions and amenities should be taken into account. Additionally, to increase the quantity and quality of the athletes, offering substantial prize money for athletes is crucial. And creating a compelling fan experience, activating sponsorships, and partnering with influencers should be also considered to promote the marketing management of WCH.
Open-water swimming is an exercise that can enhance the athlete's physical fitness. Even though different swimmers enjoy swimming in open water competitions, there are still safety consequences with this competition, and people must plan this hidden danger before the event. Athletes swim in open-water swimming competitions in lakes, rivers, and oceans. The difference between open-water swimming and traditional swimming in swimming causes much more uncertainty. This essay will take place on all the potential threats in an open-water swimming event. The essay will be analyzing in different aspects of the open water competition. First is the natural landscape, temperature, water quality, and water flow. All of these will affect the athlete's performance. Second, the emergency that can happen to the athletes. For example, body issues, cramps, or low body temperature. Third, the athlete's body condition, some of the athletes might have some body issues that do not fit this event, which will cause some additional problems for the hosts of the swimming event. Fourth, the ethics issues in the sporting event. With a sport that includes a big group of people attending it, there will be some unethical moves to get a higher rank.
Chinese basketball have not achieved satisfactory results in international play for a long time. Many researchers have tried to find the reasons for the weaknesses of Chinese basketball, but most of the researchers have not thought from the perspective of training system. As the birth place of basketball, America is in the lead in many aspects, such the achievements in international plays, the level of professional players. American basketball training system must be heuristic and progressive. So, the research topic of this text is the differences between Chinese basketball training system and American basketball training system. The research methods of this text are: case study method, literature survey method. Research findings: (1). the training systems for students players in China and America are similar. But Chinese major training system is youth academy, instead of campus basketball. (2). In China, youth academy untimely professionalize players. Players in youth academy are generally lack of education. (3). In China, youth academy hinders the development of campus basketball, because the youth academy holds most of the outstanding coaches and youth players. Research suggestion: (1). Youth academy should be canceled (2). Government should clarify what state sector should be responsible to promote the development of campus basketball, and invest more to improve the facility in public schools.
The issue of vehicle emissions is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gases and, by extension, global warming. One of the current solutions to the emissions problems caused by vehicles is the use of new energy vehicles to supplant fuel vehicles. This paper concentrates on a SWOT analysis of BYD using secondary data to understand BYD's current external and internal situation and to investigate what factors may be impeding BYD's advancement in the new energy vehicle market. The paper concludes that BYD's reliance on policy subsidies as well as its bad after-sales service and supporting facilities may account for the company's slow continued growth. By establishing a solid after-sales system and expanding its global market, BYD will be able to address the aforementioned issues. Consequently, by analysing BYD as a leading player in China's new energy vehicle market, the results of this paper can be beneficial for the Chinese new energy vehicle market and can also serve as a reference for other new energy vehicle companies confronting comparable issues. It can assist investors in comprehending the current state of BYD.
Starbucks is one of the most successful coffee companies in the world, but Starbucks has been expanding continuously in terms of business. In the past ten years, the number of stores in China has increased by nearly ten times. Although the expansion policy shows that Starbucks is still in the stage of growth, from the data of the financial statements in the past 5 years, Starbucks seems to have some problems. This article mainly analyzes the ratio of financial reports related to Starbucks business activities, compares liquidity, profitability data such as ROA, ROE, etc., and further decomposes these data with DuPont analysis. The main purpose of this article is to find out the reasons that caused these changes to analyze the development trends, advantages and problems of Starbucks in the past 5 years. From the analysis, we can see that Starbucks has the advantage of the supply chain system, but there are problems in other respects.
Private lending is widespread in China, and as a useful and necessary complement to formal finance, it is becoming increasingly important in the country's economic development process. The activity of private lending is in line with the profit-seeking nature of market players, enabling the effective use of a large amount of idle social capital, and temporarily alleviating the contradiction between the high lending threshold of formal financial institutions and the lack of timely satisfaction of the capital needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, which has contributed to the development of diversified financing methods. However, while playing its irreplaceable role, the overheated private lending market may also leave a series of sequelae to China's immature social and economic structure at any time, including the lack of supervision and management mechanisms, insufficient regulation of intermediaries, the risk of disputes and the impact on financial institutions. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the legal regulation dilemma of private lending in China, and discusses the path of private lending regulation from the levels of special legislation, perfecting supporting systems, and prudently handling related disputes, in order to achieve the early realization of sunlight, standardization and legalization of private lending.
With the arrival of new consumption era, the consumption of a commodity at this time is not limited to its own use value and exchange value. Symbol consumption has become a trend. In this case, enterprises shape their identity through precisely targeting the audience market to stimulate consumers to consume. Based on the phenomenon that Mixue Ice Cream & Tea, which is a tea drinking company, achieves its success in the Chinese market, this study explores the marketing logic behind it. The paper takes the sign value perception as the foundation connecting the self-concept with the product consistency to explain the change of consumers' consumption intention through the symbol value and value of the enterprise symbol shaped by it. In summary, it can be drawn from the research that the more matching between the shaped sign and the corporate image, the higher the consumer's consumption intention is. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the marketing strategy of Mixue Ice Cream & Tea, so as to provide suggestions for other local enterprises to enter the sinking market and improve the market share.
Portfolio optimization is a crucial aspect of finance, requiring advanced analytical tools and modeling techniques. This paper proposes a new method for portfolio optimization that combines Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) forecasting with Covariance Shrinkage and Mean-Variance Optimization (MVO) to construct diversified portfolios that maximize risk-adjusted returns. The study utilizes an LSTM-based model to predict stock prices, evaluating its performance using the RMSE metric. The calculated RMSE of 0.0849 indicates accurate and robust predictions. The portfolio constructed shows different weights each day for different assets based on the minimum variance and maximum Sharpe ratio portfolios. As of January 3rd, 2023, the assets with the largest proportion in the Maximum Sharpe Ratio portfolio and in the Minimum Volatility portfolio, are respectively BA, accounting for 27.64% of the portfolio and PG, accounting for 32.66% of the portfolio. This paper compares the performance of the proposed method and benchmark methods by applying 30 daily portfolio weights to real returns. The portfolio constructed by the proposed method has higher cumulative return with a higher Sharpe ratio and lower maximum drawdown, indicating a better ability to diversify risks and create returns. The proposed method offers a new perspective on portfolio optimization, which can potentially benefit investors and asset managers.
Focusing on the U.S. market, this research selects ten high-capitalization U.S. stocks in different industries and uses stock price forecasting in machine learning as well as Monte Carlo simulation to explore the efficient frontier of assets. Besides, this paper builds a portfolio with equal weight, maximum Sharpe ratio, and minimum volatility criteria, respectively. The results show that the Exxon Mobil Corporation possesses the largest proportion of the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio, and the UnitedHealth Group Inc. accounts largest weights for the portfolio with the minimum volatility. In addition, this paper also compares the cumulative returns of the three investment portfolios with the important index NASDAQ of the US stock market. The results indicate that that the above mentioned three portfolios are all better than the benchmark index and can obtain a higher return. The results may shed light on some investors' approach to portfolio management during this extraordinary time.
The recent fluctuations in interest rates in the Hong Kong stock market have sparked a significant amount of attention, prompting investors to further intensify their research into portfolio optimization strategies. To determine the most suitable investment plan, this study carefully selected five Hong Kong stocks based on their market capitalization. Predictive data were utilized for portfolio optimization, with the mean-variance analysis framework used to measure portfolio performance. Our model revealed that asset allocation of 2800.HK held the highest proportion in the minimum variance model, with the five stocks holding ratio of 0.119952, 0.000517, 0.067936, 0.030762, and 0.822611 separately. The average cumulative return using mean variance on the testing dataset was 1.091263. The final findings of this study may be useful to investors seeking to optimize their investments in the Hong Kong stock market. The insights gained from this research could help investors make better decisions and achieve improved returns.
Portfolio optimization models that use predictions can effectively capture short-term investment opportunities. However, in traditional models, inaccurate predictions of the expected excess return of different assets can negatively impact investment performance. Deep learning models have demonstrated significant advantages over time series models in this regard. This paper connects Transformer model and the BiLSTM model, which is short for bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory, for return prediction for portfolio model performance enhancement. To be specific, the model of BiLSTM-Transformer is firstly applied for predicting the yield of alternative assets, which is then incorporated in the mean–variance (MV) model. Using 6 component stocks of the US30 index as alternative assets, 270 investments are conducted, and the empirical results are compared with LSTM and Transformer model. The comparison verifies the superiority of BiLSTM-Transformer model in improving prediction accuracy and boost of portfolio model performance.
Portfolio is one of the most critical factors in the investment process, which can effectively reduce investment risk, improve investment return, and achieve more diversified investment strategies according to the different needs and goals of investors. This paper focuses on Chinese stock market and selects five active stocks on the Main Board from Shanghai Stock Exchange. Closing prices from August 1,2022 to December 31,2022 of each stock are obtained from Tushare. Four portfolios are constructed in this paper, of which is equally-weighted, market-value-weighted, minimal risk and maximal Sharpe ratio. Monte Carlo simulation is constructed to obtain combinations with minimal risk and maximal Sharpe ratio. After obtaining weights of these tow combinations, it turns out that Sichuan Changhong Electric accounted for the max proportion in minimal risk portfolio while in maximal Sharpe ratio portfolio, China United Communications took up the largest proportion. Finally, according to the overall cumulative return curve, maximal Sharpe ratio portfolio is the optimal portfolio. This paper gives detailed insights of portfolio allocation and selection for investors.
This paper investigates the portfolio allocation strategy using the ARIMA time series model with eight companies in four industries: Technology, Healthcare, Financial Services, and New Energy. This research aims to identify the best portfolio allocation approach that maximizes the returns for investors in each industry. This paper collected daily stock prices of Apple and Microsoft in the technology industry, Johnson & Johnson and Pfizer in the healthcare industry, JPMorgan Chase and Goldman Sachs in the financial services industry, and Tesla and NextEra Energy in the new energy industry from January 2016 to December 2019. The logarithmic returns first were calculated for the first three years as the training data. Then, an appropriate ARIMA time series model would be fitted to forecast the stock return for the last year and perform the portfolio optimization based on the predicted return for 2019 following a result of weights for each asset. By comparison, the paper also applied portfolio optimization to the raw logarithmic daily return from 2016 to 2018 without the time series model fitted and got another set of weights for each asset. Finally, both cumulative returns for these two portfolios computed and compared with visualizations. There is a finding that the modified strategy of portfolio with ARIMA model forecasted data could provide a more obvious trade-off relationship between volatility and sharpe-ratio for returns than the traditional one performed with the raw data. The result of this paper provides a potential scope of an application of portfolio optimization worked with time series modeling for investors to make investment decisions that possibly yield a higher return.
Portfolio optimization is now playing a key role in the financial sector, investors turn to portfolio optimization to make trade-offs between the expected return and risk. Based on the background of the rapid development of new energy in China. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an asset allocation analysis in the field of the new energy sector. This paper selected nine representative companies from the sector, then this paper analyzed the asset portfolio weights using a mean-variance model, and conducted portfolio tests using real data to obtain the cumulative portfolio returns. The results show that BYD accounts for the largest share in both the maximum Sharpe ratio model and the minimum variance model. And besides, the evaluation of the portfolio weights shows that the maximum Sharpe ratio model performs best. These findings can be used as a reference for investors who are interested in the new energy sector.
Building an investment portfolio is one of the most common ways for investors to hedge their risks. This paper examines the investment market in China's film and entertainment industry by selecting five leading A-share companies in the film and entertainment industry. Five representative stocks from these industries were selected for analysis in this paper: Guomai Culture & media Co., ltd., Beijing Funshine Culture Media Co., Ltd., Mango Excellent Media Co., Ltd, ZHEJIANG HUACE FILM & TV CO., LTD, Alpha Group. The closing price data of these five stocks in the past year were selected and 4000 different portfolios were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Then, the mean-variance model was used to select the portfolio with the maximum Sharpe ratio and the portfolio with the minimum variance. After the weights of the two groups of assets are obtained, this paper uses the actual income data for the last month to test the performance of the portfolios. The results show that ZHEJIANG HUACE FILM & TV CO. have the largest weights in both the maximum Sharpe ratio model and the minimum variance ratio model, but the evaluation of the weights shows that the large-cap results perform better than the above model.
In recent years, there has been a profound shift in the demographic structure in China, with an increasingly severe trend towards aging. This study employs a comparative analysis based on recent data from China and other 26 countries to highlight the unique features of China’s aging society. Despite having a similar trend of declining birth rates as developed countries, China’s elderly dependency ratio is higher than that of developing countries. This phenomenon will inevitably impact the Chinese value of filial piety, while also presenting an opportunity for the development of the elderly market, particularly in home-based care. However, due to the nascent stage of China’s elderly care market, significant gaps still exist. To address this, the paper adopts Japan as a case study and highlights favorable measures that Japan has implemented which may be considered opportunistic for future home-based care market in China. Finally, feasible suggestions are provided to address the imbalance between supply and demand in the home-based care market.
With the passage of time, science and technology have become increasingly developed, and the national economy has also made progress. Many countries are facing a common problem - the growth rate of the population has become increasingly slow. This article will conduct research on the question of how population changes influence the national economy. It is known that population is the main part of economic activity and the most fundamental variable of economic development. The increase in population is the basis of economic growth, and the growth of the economy depends on the population, and the growth of the economy usually contributes to the increase in population. In order to explore the impact of population changes on the national economy in China and the United States, this article mainly uses literature reading and analysis to conduct in-depth research on this topic. This paper proposes that population change has become an important factor in the economic development of a country. Population decline represents a decrease in the number of labor forces in the country, and the problem of population aging has intensified. Generally speaking, this will have a negative impact on the economic development of the country.
The main reason for adopting the Variable Interest Entity (VIE) structure is that China has strict policies and legal restrictions on the listing of domestic companies. Many domestic companies with VIE structure have successfully listed overseas, and have created remarkable results and gained huge profits, for example, Alibaba, New Oriental, Sina and other enterprises, but the Alipay scandal in 2017 had to make people re-examine the risks of the VIE structure. Therefore, the formulation of laws and policies and regulatory systems applicable to VIE in China plays an important role in the good operation of VIE. This paper will adopt the method of case analysis and take Alibaba as an example to discuss the regulatory problems and risk response existing in VIE itself. The legitimacy of VIE itself is still vague, coupled with the different regulatory systems at home and abroad, the attitude of regulatory authorities and courts towards VIE is not clear, and there is even an inconsistency which makes the operation of VIE structure has certain risks. Therefore, the research and improvement of VIE legal policies and information disclosure systems also play a very important role in the good operation of the domestic capital market.
The issue of aging and delayed retirement is one of the key topics of research today, and researchers have studied the effects and problems of aging and delayed retirement policies on different aspects of society, but there is always a lack of uniform explanation for the issue of the impact of delayed retirement policies on China’s labor market. Therefore, this paper explores the impact of delayed retirement policy initiation on China’s labor supply by means of data analysis and policy research. It is found that the impact of the delayed retirement policy on China’s labor supply is mainly fourfold. First, at the short-term level, it leads to a greater labor supply than demand. Second, at the long-term level, it can alleviate part of the labor shortage caused by aging. Third, it can promote the accumulation and full utilization of labor capital. Finally, delaying retirement may cause the crowding out of labor jobs for young people. This shows that the impact of delayed retirement policy on China’s labor supply is both positive and negative. A reasonable retirement policy can ensure a reasonable supply of labor force in the long run, thus ensuring economic development.
The intensification of population aging affects all aspects of society. Among them, it has a particular impact on economic growth. Some scholars believe that aging will stimulate economic development, while more people believe that aging will burden the economy. Based on research on the five major gross domestic product factors: consumption, investment, government spending, net exports, and the labor market, the aging population brings more harmful effects to the growth of gross domestic production rather than optimistic effects. The aging population only benefits the government expenditure that the government consumes and invests more funds in the aging population. The increasing government expenditure directly raises the gross domestic product. By contrast, the excessive government spending will trigger more critical fiscal problems. Thus, compared with the negative impact on GDP in other areas, the increase in government spending cannot offset those adverse impacts. The government has to take steps to balance the plethora of adverse effects.
NEXT is a very common large clothing company in Britain, whose clothes are deeply in the hearts of contemporary young people. In the valuation of NEXT Company, the author found the formula of financial statements and selected a lot of useful data, and the DCF model was adopted. A variety of company data and many factors can affect the valuation results. So, many Excel sheets need to be created to summarize and calculate all this data. The final estimated market value is about 14.15 billion, while the actual market value is 8.66 billion. So, the results differ from NEXT's internal estimates, but the overall trend is similar. There are many reasons for this difference, involving some disadvantages of the DCF model and valuation problems. This paper enabled people to: have a certain understanding of the market development trend; learn a lot of valuation methods and become proficient in using them; more clearly understand the advantages and disadvantages of the DCF model; and have a more accurate understanding of the NEXT Company.
With the young people's pursuit of fashion, some successful clothing brands accurately grasp the needs of customers, enhance their brand value and create a unique business model. This paper will take fast fashion brand ZARA as an example, use literature analysis method to accurately explore its business model and brand strategy, summarize ZARA's advantages from the perspectives of ZARA's history, designer strategy, supply chain and marketing strategy, and conduct a comparative study with Uniqlo, which is also a strong fast fashion brand. Compare two brand companies in the same supply chain system of different sales models. Finally, through the analysis of the two main problems ZARA faces, the paper proposes the direction worth studying in the future, summarizes the successful experience and puts forward effective suggestions.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the efficient market hypothesis, a financial concept used to monitor the stock market. The efficient market hypothesis states that the market for securities is efficient as it reflects all the available information about individual stocks and the holistic market view. The paper assesses the impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. stock market and draws conclusions about the availability of information to stakeholders in the capital market and its effect on their returns and buying potential. The literature review includes studies that assess the efficient market hypothesis in general, specific to COVID-19, and in reference to financial crises. The objective is to contribute to the existing research by assessing capital markets and analyzing the efficient market hypothesis during a crisis, as investors tend to raise their profits by managing their portfolios to hedge funds and risks.
At present, the United States is witnessing an unprecedented level of inflation, which has not been observed in the past 40 years. To navigate the economy, the US Federal Reserve has opted to raise interest rates. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the potential impacts of the Federal Reserve's policy, drawing upon a wide range of forecasts from economists across various fields and perspectives to present a comprehensive picture of the situation. The central question is whether the US economy will be able to achieve a "soft landing", as anticipated by the Federal Reserve, or whether it will ultimately enter into a recession. In the event of a recession, the paper delves into the severity and duration of the potential downturn, providing insight into what Americans may expect. Given the United States' critical role in the global economy, the Federal Reserve's policy decisions have far-reaching effects. Therefore, comprehending the possible results and consequences of the current interest rate hikes is vital for policymakers and ordinary citizens alike.
Decision-making is a process that would affect people's lives from simple daily decisions even to major life decisions. The understanding of judgment is critical for making better decisions as well as improving individual and collective outcomes. This paper would focus on historical decision theory, utility theory, prospective theory, and their applications in real life. The utility theory of the decision-making theory is a crucial part of the decision-making theories, as well as the prospect theory in the later paper. According to prospect theory and utility theory, people would make decisions based on the relative importance of the options' predicted values, and biases and heuristics would influence their choices. Both theories have applications in many fields such as economics, psychology, and medicine. They are used to form models and predict consumer behavior or financial decisions. People’s lives are strongly associated with different decision makings, from simple to complex. The decision-making process is essential to human existence and fully connect to humans. By figuring out the decision-making processes, people can identify the factors that would influence the choices and make adjustments based on them. The application of the theories could be more practical. Thus, it is crucial to analyze or quantify it for more stable and reasonable choice-making.
In the age of the digital economy, many enterprises use new technologies to empower their enterprises, and their technological innovation is closely related to their business models. In the era of digital economy, how companies achieve business models and technological innovation is an important issue. The support and driving business model innovation of new technologies, and business model innovation can guide technological innovation, thereby achieving the coordinated development of the two and jointly promoting the rapid development of the enterprise. Based on the longitudinal analysis of the case of NIO, a typical enterprise, this paper analyzes the dynamic co-evolution mechanism of technology innovation and business model innovation, and establishes the relevant model. By summarizing the results of the case analysis, this paper concludes that technological innovation promotes business model innovation, and business model innovation drives technological innovation, and the co-dynamic evolution mechanism of the two has three main modes: one-way, interactive, and integration.
The COVID-19 outbreak has different impacts on the stock prices of all industries. This paper focuses on analyzing the factors affecting the stock prices of the pharmaceutical industry and puts forward relevant suggestions. In this paper, the impact of the stock price of the pharmaceutical industry on the background of the novel coronavirus epidemic was analyzed, and six pharmaceutical companies were selected as the objects of analysis. This paper analyzes the reasons for the rise and fall of the stock prices of the six pharmaceutical companies, and provides some suggestions for the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the pharmaceutical industry stock market from the perspectives of pharmaceutical companies, regulators, and investors.
Nowadays, Chinese sports brands are booming. Anta has become one of the most competitive sports brands in China. This paper aims to analyze Anta's current marketing strategies and existing problems and provide some suggestions for Anta's future development. Literature analysis is used in this case study. The research summarizes Anta's brand image and marketing strategy, namely innovation and vertical integration operation mode. The vertically integrated operation mode has helped Anta cut off redundant trading links and transaction costs and also helped it achieve a balance between production and sales. Anta's ability to innovate enables its products to constantly apply new technologies and become more competitive with other sports brands. However, Anta still lacks competitiveness in the international market, which is reflected in fuzzy product positioning and low consumer loyalty. The study suggests Anta should cultivate more competitive core technologies. In addition, Anta should also build closer ties with consumers through social media platforms such as Bilibili and TikTok.
In the contemporary world economy, marketing has played a crucial role in determining product values. However, it is subject to changes in consumer psychology that are the inevitable outcomes of social developments. The topic this research is to analyze the timeliness of marketing strategies based on consumer psychology in new media era. The investigation is carried on by reviewing existing papers relevant to this topic, thus providing insight into the effectiveness of marketing strategies over time. The sources of information are relevant and recent to keep track of changes as much as possible. The research suggests that pricing strategy is losing its place in modern marketing practices as consumers become favoring emotional values rather than the practicality of products, while social media is gaining popularity in creating commercial values for businesses. Therefore, marketers are recommended to draw up customer-centric marketing strategies that leverage the power of technology, including simplifying promotion content to avoid information overload and depending on the interactions between potential customers to expand influence.
Recently, new energy vehicles have become more and more popular, and the new energy market has received unprecedented popularity. With the world's environmental problems becoming more and more serious, people have also begun to realize that the reduction of carbon emissions is an important thing. As a representative brand of the new energy vehicle industry, Tesla has many places to learn from other brands. The research mainly focuses on the analysis of Tesla’s marketing strategies in China and international markets and also combines online and offline sales analysis. The method of this paper is literature analysis. This paper summarized Tesla’s problems as the current situation of the industry, consumer psychology and marketing strategies. In addition, this paper also provided solutions to the existing problems. There are significant problems with car safety, insufficient understanding of consumer psychology, and problems with offline marketing models. Tesla has encountered unprecedented development challenges and opportunities. Tesla should increase communication with customers to raise awareness of the brand. Tesla should also improve the quality of its products to enhance the reputation of its brand.
As industry 4.0 evolves, how to acquire customers from the high-tech sector has become one of the top difficulties for incumbent firms. Previous research indicates that consumer psychology is important in establishing innovative marketing strategies. However, most existing research is still focused on a theoretical framework built around production, pricing, distribution, promotion, and other marketing factors but ignores systematic consumer influence. Therefore, this research conducts a case study analysis on the Chinese domestic cosmetic brand Caitang to research innovative marketing strategies based on consumer psychology. The author points to the relevancy and important role that (1) personal relevancy, ingroup perception and national pride, (2) para-social interaction, (3) high cognition and trust play in influencing consumer purchasing behavior. The author then explains the principles and effectiveness of using these three marketing strategies. Domestic firms receive insights if they plan to innovate companies’ promotion strategy. The author recommends adopting personally relevant advertisements, interactive opportunities, and signature products in promoting purchasing intention.
With the continuous deepening of China's market economy system reform, corporate acquisitions, especially hostile acquisitions, are becoming increasingly popular. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the market to improve the relevant legal provisions for anti-takeover decisions and measures. To begin with, this article takes the allocation of anti-acquisition decision-making right from the perspective of comparative law as an index. Then, it sorts out the decision-making models and related measures of anti-hostile acquisitions. Subsequently, this article takes the equity dispute between China Vanke Co., Ltd. and Baoneng Investment Group Co as a case study, using literature research methods and qualitative analysis methods as the basic research approaches to explore various practical difficulties faced by Chinese companies in anti-hostile acquisitions under the shareholder primacy. This refers to the limitations of the legislative design of the relevant shareholder primacy for Chinese listed companies in the face of hostile acquisitions, which include an analysis of the implementation authority of acquisition defense measures, the responsible parties, and the reasons for the insufficient power of the board in anti-hostile acquisition activities. Ultimately, in order to overcome the above deficiencies, this article proposes suggestions on limiting the power of shareholders' meetings to expand the function of the board, improving the mechanism for the operation of directors' powers and responsibilities, balancing the overall rights and protecting interests of shareholders.
When corporate organizations desire to improve their capacity for strategic planning of their product management, The BCG Matrix is one of the most well-known and effective strategic tools. The paper attempts to analysis the different portfolios of the BCG and the corresponding choices of business strategies, combining them with the product lifecycle theory and developing a corporate strategic plan in conjunction with the actual based on existing literature and data. The result shows that in the BCG Matrix, corporate strategies and products are closely linked, and a strong and competitive product can help a company penetrate the market rapidly in the face of fierce competition. It provides companies with a choice of business strategies on SBU (Strategic Business Units), and helps them plan and distribute their available resources through the strategies. According to the result, the strategic operating unit depends on its position in the diagram, different operational directions are determined, and the operational strategy has a different focus depending on the product stage.
Banks still want to recover part of overdue loans, and choose a corresponding debt collection strategy for each customer based on some factors. The article uses cross-sectional analysis and nonparametric tests to determine the factors that influence banks' recovery of loans. From the analysis, recovery strategies and sex are independent of each other. Loan recovery ratios are related to the cost of debt collection strategies. A binary logistic regression model concludes that gender, age and expected recovery amount did not influence the choice of debt collection strategy.