Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Management Research and Economic Development

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-93-5 (Print)

    978-1-915371-94-2 (Online)

    Published Date



    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia

    Canh Thien Dang, King's College London


  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230466

    The Analysis of JD Intelligent Logistics

    With the need for new development patterns, it is necessary to form a new concept of logistics called intelligent logistics. Now more and more enterprises develop intelligent logistics, but at present, the research on intelligent logistics is not deep enough. So this paper, takes JD intelligent logistics, the leading enterprise in the industry, as an example to focus on the developments, achievements, and problems of intelligent logistics in operation management. This paper reveals that JD intelligent logistics has developments in distribution and transport. It shows that it has a high cost, imperfect management, and a shortage of high talent. These aspects can largely affect the efficiency of the operation in JD. So the JD company should make solutions such as lowing the cost and trying their best to train workers. The outcome of this study can be helpful to other companies in this field.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230467

    Chinese Manufacturing Industry in the Context of Industry 4.0

    The fourth industrial revolution, more popular known as Industry 4.0, has been developed for nearly 10 years since it was proposed, and has gradually evolved into a new revolution in manufacturing on a global scale. It is an era of opportunities for comprehensive digitalization. Through continuous exploration and development, the core technology of Industry 4.0 is constantly being explored and improved. China has written a manufacturing legend in the past 30 years, but its productivity still behind developed countries. If China wants to grow from the world's largest manufacturing country to a manufacturing powerhouse, it must grasp the general trend of Industry 4.0. Therefore, this paper explores the characteristics, core technologies and current global development trends of industry 4.0. And by analyzing the development data of Chinese manufacturing in the past ten years combined with Chinese government policies, the development status of Chinese Industry 4.0 and the problems encountered, some solutions and suggestions are put forward. Help enterprises understand the general environment and the technical characteristics of Industry 4.0, to formulate digital transformation and upgrading strategies based on their own characteristics and development needs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230468

    Application Status of Engineering Management in the Construction Field

    With the development of the real estate industry, the take-off of the construction industry has also caused more and more capital to pour into the construction industry, driving the rapid development of the construction industry, but also causing the construction industry to face great competitive pressure. In order to achieve effective management of construction projects, this article aims to point out the main problems in China’s construction management and improve the construction project management system and improve construction technology, which is conducive to improving the operational level and construction quality of construction projects. Currently, there is a lack of effective information communication and coordination mechanisms within the construction units of construction projects, which can lead to slow progress and low efficiency in the construction of construction projects, which will greatly increase the implementation difficulty of construction projects and restrict the improvement of enterprise construction project management level. Thus, it is important to improve the role of construction project management in the construction industry, and it is necessary to figure out the inner problems and strengthen the management of construction projects. The article’s main purpose is to focus on the current situation and development reality of construction project management, specific research is conducted on its management and control optimization from the perspective of engineering management, to provide a reference for modern management and optimization of construction projects management.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230469

    Labour Market Analysis from a Behavioral Economics Perspective: From the Perspective of Unemployment Insurance and Employment Discrimination

    This article analyzes labor market problems through the lens of behavioral economics. This article seeks to identitys methods in which behavioral economics can provide policy recommendations for addressing issues related to unemployment and employment. While traditional economics fails to explain how unemployment insurance discourages job search and leads to long-term unemployment, behavioral economics finds that cognitive biases like loss aversion and present bias prolong unemployment. It suggests that policies must be designed by considering these cognitive biases to increase the motivation of the unemployed to accept work. One policy that can supplement unemployment insurance is wage-loss insurance. Wage-loss insurance is a short or long-term monetary subsidy when the wages in the new job are lower than in the old job. This paper uses qualitative analysis and a literature review to gather insights into labor market problems and the role of behavioral economics in addressing them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230470

    An Analysis of Starbucks’ Marketing Strategy and Innovation in the Chinese Market

    As the number of Starbucks shops in China continues to increase, Starbucks’ focus on creating high-end products has neglected some of the basic needs of the consuming public. With negative press, the emergence of more and more peer competitors, and the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, Starbucks should change its current status quo, improve its reputation, make corporate innovations, and change marketing strategies. This paper will analyze Starbucks’ current internal and external environments as well as its marketing strategy using a combination of theory and practice, using SWOT analysis theory and a comparison with competitors such as Luckin Coffee and %Arabica Coffee to elaborate, and give some feasible suggestions for corporate innovation. Through SWOT analysis, Starbucks should adopt a “coffee + ” strategy to bundle sales, increase the variety of coffee derivatives, expand partner brands, and take advantage of the Internet to create a Netflix brand to drive traffic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230471

    The Guiding Significance of Olympic Marketing on China's Sports Industry Business Promotion: What are the Enlightenment and Lessons from Historic Cases?

    This article delves into the significance of Olympic marketing in advancing the Olympic movement and examines the challenges and prospects for the Chinese sports industry to employ cooperative marketing and promotion campaigns to bolster its national economy. The piece derives insights and tactics from the lessons and stratagems of prior Olympic events and sets forth strategic recommendations for Chinese stakeholders to participate in and collaboratively cultivate the sports economy. It underscores the paramount of relationship marketing, continual advancement, methodical marketing planning, and comprehension of the implications associated with Olympic marketing. Moreover, the article contemplates the relevance of service-dominant logic and social identity theory in sports marketing. Nevertheless, it also broaches apprehensions regarding the commercialization of the Olympic Games and the prioritization of financial gain over athlete welfare. Finally, the article advocates for a strategic blueprint to elevate China's sports industry by merging it with other sectors, advocating for healthy lifestyles, and amplifying domestic demand and consumption, while acknowledging the resource dependence theory and the intense competition among industry contenders.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230473

    The Golden Parachute Mechanism of Listed Businesses' Bad Faith Takeover Defense

    As the wave of mergers and acquisitions spreads in China, incidents of hostile takeovers in the capital market are becoming more frequent. More Chinese companies are revising their articles of association and adding anti-hostile takeover clauses, including the Golden Parachute clause, to protect their interests. Most research on Golden Parachute has focused on the U.S. market, but China's capitalist market environment and corporate governance structure differ greatly from the U.S., and there are blank spaces in the value judgment of the Golden Parachute in American studies. When introducing it in China, legislative bodies and corporate rules should not copy blindly; rather, they should extract its essence while discarding the dross. This article summarizes current research literature on the Golden Parachute clause by Chinese and American academia, uses empirical research to analyze how the clause was applied in the Musk-Twitter acquisition case, and presents personal insights on how Chinese companies can write the Golden Parachute clause into their articles of association and localize it based on actual mergers and acquisitions scenarios. Efforts must be made at the institutional, legal, and ethical levels to address the challenges faced by the Golden Parachute clause in practice, thereby opening up greater possibilities for their application in China.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230474

    Analysis of The Influence Path of Digital Infrastructure on Economic Development

    With the progress and development of science and technology, the wave of digital civilization characterized by digitalization and networking has brought about a major change in economic development, society and life style. The booming development of the digital economy has promoted the construction wave of the digital economy infrastructure. Digital infrastructure, as a channel of data circulation and a necessary element of the in-depth development of digital economy, has become an important development direction and investment direction of the development of digital economy, and has also attracted the attention of the country and the government. After summarizing the relationship between predecessors and digital infrastructure, digital economy and economic development, this paper analyzes the specific mechanism of digital economy to economic development from the macro level, and changes the traditional factor utilization mode and factor form by analyzing digital infrastructure. It analyzes how the digital infrastructure affects the development of the economy. At the same time, the difficulties of the current digital infrastructure construction are also analyzed, and the relevant suggestions are put forward.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230476

    Venture Capital Investment Success: A Study of the Factors that Matter

    Venture capital funding is essential for emerging businesses because it allows them to gain access to capital and other resources necessary for growth. VC firms play an important role in economic growth because they inspire innovative thinking and provide funding for startups to develop marketable products and cutting-edge technologies. Consequently, it is essential for venture capitalists to take into consideration relevant aspects before investing in order to increase the proportion of investments that are successful. Through literature analysis which has revealed that there are six key components to a successful venture capital firm: the team, the syndication, the valuation, the value-add, the interaction with investors, and the exits. Importantly, venture capitalists place more weight on the selection of transactions than on the selection of investments. Rather than considering a company's track record or product offerings, investors will place greater emphasis on the management team behind the venture. Many venture investors subscribe to the old adage that investing in a mediocre idea with excellent management is better than a fantastic business strategy with inexperienced management because a team with competent and experienced employees will play a significant part in the firm's growth. Even while it's crucial to choose your transactions carefully, value can also be created by the addition of new elements after an investment has been made.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230477

    The Anatomy of Global Financial Crisis: A Comprehensive Analysis

    The topic of this article is an analysis of the 2008 Financial Crisis and its inspiration for the complicated economy under COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The background of this article is that uncertainty and fluctuation occur frequently in the global macroeconomic and 2022’s economic Nobel Prize draws attention to the research of financial crisis. The article will introduce the cause of the 2008 Financial Crisis in 3 aspects: Fed’s monetary policy, subprime mortgages, and credit default swaps. Then it will come to the consequence of the 2008 Financial Crisis with several exact examples. After that, changes due to the 2008 Financial Crisis will be introduced from 2 dimensions, which are Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III. That section also discusses the application of certain regulation or rules and their influence on the post-crisis era. In conclusion part, this article will show the significance of the 2008 Financial Crisis and its application to today’s economic problems under a complex external environment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230478

    Quantitative Analysis in Finance: Leveraging Statistical Methods for Improved Investment Decisions

    Since modern times, with the vigorous development of the financial market, the explanation of some complex finan-cial phenomena can no longer be based on the qualitative analysis of the subjective judgment, but on the quantitative analysis of statistical models. This paper first analyzes and demonstrates the application and importance of statistics in the financial field from three perspectives of risk quantifi-cation, price prediction as well as portfolio optimization. Secondly, this paper points out that the traditional statisti-cal theory cannot meet the current practical needs in the above three aspects, and lists a series of relevant studies. Finally, this paper gives some possible solutions to the cur-rent problem based on existing research and personal un-derstanding and evaluates some existing solutions. The re-search conclusion of this paper is expected to provide a reference for the practical application of statistics in the fi-nancial field and provide some possible ideas for the re-search direction of related interdisciplinary.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230479

    Causes and Consequences of the 2008 Financial Crisis: A Critical Review

    The analysis of the financial crisis is crucial for the growth of the world economy, particularly given the complicated economic environment that COVID-19 is currently experiencing and the war in Ukraine. This paper will discuss the most significant financial crisis that happened in 2008, which was brought on by the financial authorities' shoddy implementation and upkeep of their policies. The collapse of several major banks and financial institutions, high unemployment, government bailouts, the collapse of the real estate market, regulatory reforms, and economic recession were the main consequences of the crisis. It is essential to research and examine the factors that led to the financial crisis of 2008 and its consequences. First, research of this kind enables us to comprehend the underlying causes of the financial catastrophe. Secondly, financial crisis research helps to identify early warning signs of impending crises. Third, the study of financial crises can provide valuable insights into the behavior of financial markets and financial institutions. Fourth, research on financial crises can help inform public policy debates. Finally, research on financial crises can help improve transparency and accountability in the financial sector. Such research can inform public policy, promote transparency and accountability, and help ensure a more stable and sustainable global economy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230480

    Pfizer Inc.'s Financial Performance: An Evaluation of Growth and Profitability

    Based on Pfizer's 2021 annual report, this paper explored whether Pfizer's ac-counting policy is accurate, whether the company's strategic adjustments for the future are achievable, and whether Pfizer's performance is good in com-parison with its industry peers. By analyzing Pfizer's accounting standards, this analysis concluded that Pfizer's accounting policy is relatively accurate. Pfizer adopted a new accounting standard for income taxes that eliminates certain exceptions related to the method of allocating tax for the period. To analyze whether Pfizer's strategic adjustment for the company's future de-velopment is achievable, this paper has analyzed the situation of the general environment in 2022 and 2023 and the characteristics of Pfizer's industry, from which this paper concluded that Pfizer's strategic adjustment is a clear choice, although it requires time and effort. It is worth noting that Pfizer made a significant acquisition in 2021. When comparing Pfizer with its competitors, this paper chose to compare the performance, leverage, and li-quidity of Pfizer with its competitors, each of which contains two to three key ratios, and by comparing these data, this analysis concluded that Pfizer is still outstanding when compared with its competitors, and it is a company that investors can trust.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230481

    The Importance of ESG in Corporate Strategy and Investment Decisions with Patagonia as an Example

    Companies and investors are increasingly relying on environmental, social and governance factors to address long-term sustainability and ethical implications, and ESG is a non-financial criterion for assessing these factors, mainly applied to assess the current status of corporate social responsibility, environmental governance and other aspects. This paper uses the various methods of ESG assessment and provides a brief introduction before using Patagonia, an American outdoor clothing and equipment company, as a study of environmental and social responsibility, where several measures are taken to reduce corporate governance and ensure social justice. The final in-depth study found that it is particularly important for companies to prioritize ESG. Firstly, ESG increases the level of engagement with stakeholders, enhances the reputation of the company's brand and ultimately leads to improved financial performance, and with climate change and social inequality practices occurring regularly, it is now imperative that companies seize the opportunity to create a more sustainable society.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230482

    Different Factors the Banks Can Use to Evaluate and Screen the Customers’ Credits

    The global economy has become increasingly volatile due to the facts such as wars and epidemics. Therefore, banks may suffer even higher risks from credit card default. This may cause a vicious circle. This paper aims to help the banks evaluate and screen the customer's credits based on different factors. Statistical methods such as ANOVA analysis or Binary logistic regression are used to study and assess the significance of other variables. The results demonstrate that several factors, such as given credit or marital status, are significant to the credit card default, and education may be considered the most critical factor.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230484

    Changes in Labor Market after Financial Crisis in United States

    The unemployment rate in the United States surged to approximately ten percent in October 2009, achieving a historic high since July 1983, as a result of the mortgage crisis in the early twentieth-first century. Through time series analysis, this research paper examines the degree to which the three categories of the unemployment rate: overall, adult, and youth; had been affected by the housing bubble. This research paper discovers that the youth unemployment rate had been affected the most by the Great Recession. This research paper also concludes that the housing crisis in 2008 had lagging effects on the unemployment rate because undulations in the labor market necessitate additional time to be perceived, unlike the direct impact of the crisis on stock market price. Suggestions proposed by this research paper to the government and financial institutions include the implementation of rigorous manipulation in the credit system and the supervision of uncontrolled increases in prices.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230485

    Analysis and Application of Labor Standard in Countries along the"Belt and Road Initiative"

    As the initiator and host of the "Belt and Road Initiative" Economic Zone, China is in-creasingly aware of the importance of international labor standards in today's increasingly developed international trade. In order to promote economic and trade cooperation among countries along the "Belt and Road Initiative", this paper summarizes the current situation and dilemmas of the application of existing international labor standards including the soft-law barriers and institutional dilemmas of existing international labor standards. This paper also points out that some countries take advantage of the complexity and political nature of labor standards to impose trade sanctions and tariffs on developing countries and other blue trade barriers. In addition, the paper also identifies feasible ways to improve in-ternational labor standards and apply them to the "Belt and Road Initiative" Silk Economic Belt. China should develop international labor standards with the characteristics of the "Belt and Road Initiative" economy. China should establish a preventive mechanism for blue trade barriers, align the "Belt and Road Initiative" rights protection system with in-ternational standards. China should also refine the rules for the use of social provisions under the "Belt and Road Initiative" coordination mechanism, improve trade cooperation with countries along the "Belt and Road Initiative". Finally, China should improve nation-al labor standards, and seek better welfare for laborers along the "Belt and Road Initia-tive".

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230486

    Dilemmas and Responses to China’s Cross-border Digital Trade Rules under the Perspective of the Personal Information Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China

    The international community has not been able to reach agreement on digital trade rules due to the different choices of value positions and divergent economic interests. The chap-ter on "Rules on the cross-border provision of personal information" in the Personal In-formation Protection Law of the Republic of China provides the basic framework for re-stricting and regulating cross-border data flows in China. It reflects China's value orienta-tion of attaching importance to digital sovereignty and security. The country's determina-tion to further integrate into world trade and compete internationally for economic bene-fits and political status. However, the current rules in the Personal Information Protection Law still have unclear standards, excessive restrictions and conflicts with other laws and regulations. Due to the conservative values of China, there are many rules that are not compatible with the CPTPP rules. It is necessary to interpret Chapter 13 of the Personal Information Protection Law and the general rules, and complete the alignment of several laws and regulations based on the relationship between higher and lower laws and special and general laws. Meanwhile, it is also necessary to refine the specific standards for data flow in practice, so as to finally realize the alignment with the CPTPP.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230487

    The Influence of KOL Internet Marketing on Consumers from the example about Beauty products in Xiaohongshu Platform

    Key opinion leader (KOL) Internet marketing is one of the key research topics today. Researchers have found that with the rise and popularity of Xiaohongshu platform in recent years, more and more beauty products have been promoted by KOL on this platform, thus affecting consumers. However, there is still a research gap on the form and degree of influence behind it. Therefore, this paper collects questionnaire data on the consumption of beauty products purchased by Xiaohongshu of all ages, and conducts regression analysis on the data, to explore the relationship between the KOL Internet marketing environment and consumers. The results show that under the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), consumer attitude, subjective criteria and cognitive behavior control all have positive effects on consumer behavior intention. All factors under the CMM model will promote consumers' media attention to the product, and media attention has a positive effect on consumers' consumption behavior intention.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230488

    Research on the Chinese Enterprise Environmental Information Disclosure System

    Green development is the trend of current international economic development, and achieving green development is an inevitable requirement for a country to integrate into the international economic society. The enterprise environmental information disclosure system is an important means to urge enterprises to assume environmental responsibility and promote the green development of China's economy. In recent years, Chinese government has issued a series of regulations on environmental information disclosure to alleviate environmental problems, but these regulations have not achieved the expected regulatory effect. Research has found that the reasons for this problem include shortcomings in government environmental audits, limitations of environmental policies, and poor media oversight. Further research has found that China can currently improve the regulatory effect of corporate environmental information disclosure through some measures. Measures including improving the relevant laws and regulations of enterprise environ-mental audit, making up for the deficiencies of green credit policies, and establishing corporate environmental information sharing mechanism should be taken.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230489

    Difficulties and Optimization Paths of the Application of "Cross-default" Clause in Chinese Real Estate Corporate Bonds

    Since the second half of 2021, the collapse of the Chinese real estate market has resulted in a large number of bond defaults by real estate companies. Among many constraint clauses, the "cross-default" clause has caused considerable problems in triggering and enforcement due to its late introduction in China and the lack of guidance on its application. This paper analyzes the difficulties in the application of the real estate "cross-default" clause and proposes optimization paths based on the differences and similarities of regulations between domestic and foreign markets. This will help Chinese real estate companies to use the "cross-default" clause more effectively and protect the interests of bond issuers and holders. The paper adopts the method of legal regulation analysis and case analysis, focusing on the actual application of the "cross-default" clause in the Chinese market including unclear triggering conditions and a lack of effective enforcement methods. The paper proposes optimization plans including strengthening government supervision, improving laws and regulations, optimizing bond issuance mechanisms, and enhancing credit ratings of bond issuers. The significance of the research lies in providing practical recommendations and measures to improve the operation mechanism of the Chinese bond market, and to provide reference and guidance for Chinese real estate companies in risk management.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230492

    Research on Tesla’s Business Model on Obtaining Competitive Advantages

    Organizations, governments, and communities have widely discussed the concept of digital and technological innovation when the world penetrated to a new era of technological modernization. People focus on developing advanced technologies to increase production efficiency and business profitability. As a result, many organizations discover new ways to promote their market positions and gain competitive advantages over their rivals. Tesla Inc. is a typical innovative firm that disrupts conventional vehicles' business model to create a more sustainable vehicle market. The analysis of the business model, SWOT, and Porter's five forces are used to understand how Tesla engages with the development of the electric vehicles market to win market shares and customer loyalty. The essay concludes that the ways of disrupting conventional vehicle value propositions, transforming to renewable energy fuels, and the efforts put into the research process make Tesla a successful and favorable organization in the innovative realm and vehicle market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230493

    Analysis of Green Bonds Market in China in Terms of PEST Model

    Green finance has grown as a strategy in recent years for attaining sustainable development and resolving the tension between economic growth and climate change. Today, green bonds dominate the ESG (Environment, Social and Governance) themed bond market, and in this new era of green development, China's green bond market is becoming increasingly influential in the international arena. However, the development of green bonds in China is immature, and despite the existence of unified principles in policy this year, the China’s green bond market is still relatively inactive compared to foreign countries, and the motivation of issuers and investors needs to be evoked. The PEST model is used to analyze the macro environment of a market or an enterprise, focusing on the four most influential external factors, namely Politics, Economy, Society and Technology, to analyze the macro environment of the Chinese green bond market. This paper therefore applies the PEST model to analyze the domestic green bond market environment and make recommendations for green bonds market in China to reach a higher level of development. By analyzing four major factors in the green bond market - political, economic, social and technological - this thesis is known to show that the current green bond policy tends to improve, the market is growing at a faster rate and the participation of private enterprises in society is low. Therefore, the analysis of the green bond market gives difficulties faced by the advancement and the ways to solve them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230494

    Comparison of Corporate Strategies Adopted by Tesla and BYD

    In today’s increasingly saturated markets, companies must innovate and develop distinct corporate strategies to ensure survival and growth. The new energy automotive industry, as an emerging sector, requires companies to establish a unique identity and value proposition. Consequently, this study compares and analyzes Tesla and BYD, two prominent players in the electric vehicle (EV) market, to explore their respective innovations across various domains. The paper examines the strategies of these two companies in the areas of economic innovation, human resource management, financial resource management, marketing strategy, and market environment. Both companies have successfully implemented innovative strategies to maintain their position as market leaders. Tesla has focused on economic innovation, financial discipline, and innovative marketing, while BYD has taken a more diversified approach, emphasizing a strong company culture and commitment to sustainable solutions. Despite their differences, both companies have been successful in competing in the EV industry by leveraging their respective strengths and taking advantage of opportunities in the marketplace.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230495

    Stock Analysis and Portfolio Optimization

    This paper investigates financial time series from US stock markets from a quantitative perspective. The returns of all stocks are clustered with K-means with five centroids; in each group, the store with the maximum return is selected. For all five chosen supplies, construct the portfolio with different stock weights and optimize the combination with Monte Carlo to mitigate risk and maximize the Sharpe ratio. Comparing the weights under different stock weights concludes that the optimal portfolio can be obtained with the maximized Sharpe ratio scenario. More interestingly, the consequences based on market value also give remarkable cumulative returns.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230496

    Analysis and Recommendation of Tesla’s Marketing Strategy

    As the increase in the global urgency of climate change, countries are devoting their resources in supporting the transformation to renewable energy. As a result, Electric Vehicle market become the hottest topic currently. Despise being the biggest company in leading the EV market, Tesla Incorporation now is facing a decline of its dominance as more and more other affordable vehicles come out to the market. This paper critically analyzed Tesla’s current marketing strategy and consumer psychology in the aspect of emotion and cognition and attitudes and persuasion to uncover the way that customers think. The author found out that Tesla’s current “zero dollar” marketing strategy is limited and needs further promotion. Therefore, Tesla has to improve its current strategies to accommodate the frequent-changing EV market. The paper recommends new strategies for Tesla to attract potential customers and maintain existing consumers based on the theory of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, the Self-Determination Theory, Cialdini's principles of persuasion and the elaboration likelihood model.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230499

    LSTM-based Portfolio Optimization Strategy for SP500

    Portfolio optimization is a perennial topic in the field of finance and recent breakthrough in deep learning techniques offers a new perspective to tackle it. This study selects 30 stocks of SP500 in different sectors through various constraints and deploys Long Short-Term Memory and Ledoit-Wolf Shrinkage to estimate returns and covariance respectively. The target portfolio is then obtained by inputting the predicted results into the mean-variance model, which is dynamically updated on a daily basis given evolving market information. The results show that the target model this study proposed surpasses the market benchmark (SP500), 1/N portfolio, and other mean-variance variants in terms of numerous financial metrics. Moreover, the target model exhibits volatility invariance and the capability to mitigate risk while extracting returns. This study showcases the revolutionary and promising applications of deep learning in the financial industry, shedding light on novel portfolio allocation strategies for risk-averse investors seeking stable positive returns in turbulent markets.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230500

    Portfolio Optimization Based on Machine Learning

    Machine learning is utilized widely in portfolio prediction and optimization, which provides a more reliable results with mean variance optimization. Besides, socially responsible investment portfolio considering social, environment and governance becomes an emerging theme in academic and industrial circles. Basing on both of that, this study aims to use machine learning models to predict return of ESG stocks in American stocks market and mean variance optimization for creating portfolio. The consequence demonstrates SVR has less residual in prediction and maximum sharpe or minimum variance portfolio shows similarly. Both portfolios get closing return and better resilience during market undertaking pressure comparing with S&P 500. This research confirms that it is useful to predict by machine learning and ESG assets may bring extra return in the bearish market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230501

    Portfolio Optimization Analysis -- Based on Six Stocks from Different Industries in the U.S. Stock Market

    As the stock market becomes more and more unstable, investors all over the world pay more attention to risk management. Creating a portfolio is an effective way to make the trade-off between risk and return rate. This paper selects six stocks from the U.S. stock market in different industries, including the real estate industry, high technology, financial services company, pharmaceutical industry, automotive manufacturing industry and gas industry. This paper simulates 1,000,000 different investment portfolios by using the Monte Carlo simulation, then drawing the efficient frontier of the portfolio and figuring out the maximum Sharpe ratio and minimum volatility portfolio. As the results showed, McKesson Corporation accounted for the max proportion in both the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and the minimum volatility portfolio, which are 45.7149% and 60.8960% respectively. J.P. Morgan takes up 0.1232%, which is the min proportion in the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio. However, Amazon accounted for the min proportion in the minimum volatility portfolio, which is 0.4828%. In the last, this paper compared the cumulative return of the three portfolios with the S&P 500 Index, only the return rate of the equal-weight portfolio and minimum volatility portfolio is better than the benchmark. Hence, this result may provide suggestions for picking certain kinds of portfolio in this special period.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230502

    Portfolio Optimization under the Background of Continued Interest Rate Hikes

    In the process of investment, the primary investment objectives for investors are undoubtedly risk minimization and return maximization. This paper fo-cuses on the US investment market and, in the context of the Federal Re-serve's continuous interest rate hikes, avoids the currently popular artificial intelligence sectors, and focuses on the analysis of representative stocks in the manufacturing, pharmaceutical, technology, and financial industries. This paper selects 10 stocks from the above-mentioned industries for analy-sis. This paper collects stock prices, financial data (including P/E ratio, BPS, etc.), risk-free rates, market indices, and other data, and uses multiple linear regression models to predict the return data from January 1st, 2023, to March 10th, 2023. Next, the mean-variance framework is employed for the purpose of selecting both the portfolio with the highest Sharpe ratio and the one with the lowest volatility. Once the weights for both groups are ob-tained, this study tests the portfolio's performance using actual stock price data spanning from January 1st, 2023, to March 10th, 2023. After obtaining the performance data of the two groups, this paper further compares the per-formance of the portfolio with the 1/N portfolio and the market performance. The results show that the market performance is the best, followed by the 1/N portfolio and the minimum volatility portfolio, and the maximum Sharpe ratio model is the worst. This result may provide some guidance for portfolio management for some investors in this special period.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230503

    Portfolio Optimization for 5 US Stocks

    Nowadays, the rose of interest in the US and the changes in the value of the dollar case the public attention of investors on stocks. The US company stock was under a great change in this situation. So, the investors are now focusing on finding the portfolio optimization on the investment allocation. This study directly focuses on the selected five stocks of interest company to find the portfolio optimization using the Monte Carlo simulation and com-pare its return with the actual data. By Monte Carol simulation, the maxi-mum Sharpe ratio and the minimum volatility portfolios would be generat-ed, Netflix is regarded as the largest weight in the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio, while Sunning is regarded as the largest proportion weight in the minimum volatility portfolio. Besides, after evaluating the results, the max-imum Sharpe ratio and minimum volatility portfolio perform better than the standard 1/N portfolio. Using this portfolio optimization, investors can find how to allocate their investment through several stocks to get the maximum returns with relatively low risk.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230504

    Portfolio Optimization Based on LSTM for 5 Stocks

    Portfolio is a scientific model that maximizes returns and minimizes risks. It is widely used in production and life, such as stock investment, production optimization, and engi-neering models. This article selects the stocks of Google, Microsoft, Nvidia, Amazon, and Tesla from September 1, 2022, to March 1, 2023. First, this article uses the LSTM model to learn the top 70% of the data, and predicts the bottom 30% of the data, then use the portfolio strategy for the forecast results. Thus, this paper gets the maximum return model and the minimum risk model on the effective frontier of Monte Carlo. By applying two models of the portfolio and combining two results with the S&P 500 within the same time frame, this article draws a conclusion that models in this paper are better. This article pro-vides a portfolio method using the latest LSTM model as a forecasting model, and the comparison reflects the power of the joint use of the LSTM model and the portfolio mod-el.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230505

    Advantages and Disadvantages Analysis and Legal Risks of LBO

    The leveraged buyout (LBO) is an important and genius operation in the field of mergers and acquisitions. Companies expand and optimize their performance with the help of LBOs. The market as well as the society can also benefit from LBOs. But however, all coins have two sides. There are a lot of negative cases that illustrate that the LBO is not an impeccable operation. Shareholders’ benefit can be harmed and there are insider buyouts when managers impose on their shareholders as they are privileged with their insider power. This paper is going to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of LBOs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230506

    Analysis of the Condition of the Development of Cryptocurrency in China

    This article discusses the reasons behind the Chinese government's conservative attitude toward cryptocurrencies, despite the rapid growth of the cryptocurrency market in China. Cryptocurrencies have become popular in finance because of their advantages in privacy, permanence, and scalability. However, they also pose challenges, such as regulatory un-certainties and security risks. China has banned financial institutions from facilitating bitcoin transactions and imposed restrictions on cryptocurrencies. The article suggests that China's attitude towards cryptocurrencies may be due to their defects. Clear regulations and laws are needed to normalize transactions and issuance and mitigate policy risks. The article also provides some possible solutions based on the defects of cryptocurrencies.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230507

    Applications of Cryptocurrency in the Metaverse

    The Metaverse and cryptocurrency have become a heated topics of discussion in society due to the rapid development of blockchain technology. However, there is a lack of research and prediction on the future application of cryptocurrencies on the Metaverse. Therefore, this paper reviews the historical development of the Metaverse through literature research and cause-effect analysis and combines the current development trend of new technologies (IoT, AI, NFT, etc.) related to the Metaverse and cryptocurrency with the current successful commercial applications or related academic research (Vtuber, virtual health care ophthalmology) to predict the future application scenarios of cryptocurrency on the Metaverse. This paper's main contribution is to provide an overview of the various cryptocurrency application scenarios currently being used in the Metaverse and predictions of the future development direction in light of the most recent technological trends, thus filling in any existing gaps in the cryptocurrency and related financial fields in the Metaverse. It serves as a resource for academics working on the creation of Metaverse technologies and crypto-currency application case development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230511

    Looking For “Cash Cow” Influencers: Influencer Category, Fake Followers, Follower Engagement and Influencer Marketing Strategy

    When making social media marketing campaigns, the number of followers of influencers has become a key factor. Still, it's not clear if having more followers, which is one way to measure influence, is the best way to get customers interested. A new area of research that needs to be looked into is the link between fake followers and user engagement. The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship among influencer categories based on follower counts, follower engagement, and the perception of fake followers, thus providing suggestions for companies to achieve effective influencer marketing. This paper gets most of its information from questionnaires and uses SPSS to look at the information.The correlation analysis is conducted between follower engagement, the perception of fake followers, the fit of service content and needs, and follower counts. This paper also tests the influencing factors of influencer marketing: fake followers and customization services. The regression model is examined in terms of the dimensions of follower engagement, follower categories, and the perception of fake followers, along with the curve estimation and fit of service content and needs. This article suggests that a higher level of influencer, such as a well-known influencer with a lot of followers, is linked to a wider range of interactions with fans and a higher level of influence in the eyes of consumers.And there is a quadratic trend between the idea of fake followers and how active followers are.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230512

    Research on the Relationship between Second-hand Market and Consumers

    In the era of consumption upgrading, people are faced with abundant materials, also produced by over consumption of idle goods. With the increasing scale of second-hand goods circulation places, second-hand market ushered in the new problems and opportunities. While using low price as a gimmick to attract users, it exposes various problems, such as poor after-sales service, false promotion and poor product quality. At present, the main problem in the development of second-hand markets is that users do not trust websites. How to take effective measures to strengthen consumers' trust in second-hand markets is an urgent problem to be solved at present. The trust relationship between seller and consumers is a problem for further study. With the remarkable growth of the network and the rapid development of social e-commerce, strengthening trust has become increasingly important, and the trust relationship has become increasingly fragile under the influence of multiple factors. Second-hand markets might be beneficial to attach importance to customer complaints, correctly handle disputes, ensure the security of transaction payment, optimize return and exchange services, and protect customer privacy. It can optimize group bargaining mode, make significant strides in the interaction, sharing and exchange between consumers and friends with amusing consumption experience.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230513

    The Effect of Federal Reserve’s Rate Hikes: A perspective of Financial Market

    In recent years, due to the global economic recession caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve has increased the interest rate to a historical high level in recent years. In this article, the author plots the diagram of index vs. Time to show the overall economic situation. This article concentrates on the effect of the rate hikes of Federal Reserve. The purpose is guiding the investors and governments to make decision under the challenging situation. Based on the timeline of rate hikes, there are improvement of the overall economy in US. It is a chance for investors to invest the money. There are chances for investors to invest when the US Federal Reserve increase the interest rate. The investors will have more confidence to increase income if the overall economic condition is improved by the rate hike. The government can control the level of the investors’ confidences to keep stable development of economy by controlling time of rate hikes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230514

    The Valuation Analysis of NEXT.PLC based on the DCF Model

    The discounted cash flow model (DCF) is also widely used to estimate the value of a company, and despite the simplicity of the DCF model, this valuation has certain drawbacks as the uncertainty of the estimate and the assumptions made when forecasting are not negligible. In this paper, financial information from NEXT.plc is used to carry out a business valuation and compare it with the current market capitalisation. The calculations lead to the conclusion that the original valuation performed by the DCF model is higher than the current market capitalisation of the company. The assumptions used in the valuation are subject to change with the actual economic environment, and therefore the results obtained are somewhat different from the actual. It is recommended that more understanding of the social and economic context be required when applying the DCF model to valuations.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230515

    Similarities Between Cycles in China's Hog Futures Market and Cycles in the Labor Market

    Labor markets and commodity futures markets have been important areas of study in economics over the past few decades. However, most scholars view them as two separate fields. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between hog futures cycles and labor market cycles, exploring similarities between them. Hog futures are one of the most active contracts in the agricultural product futures market. The labor market is an important part of economic activity, directly affecting the financial situation of households, businesses and governments. The cycles that exist in these two markets can be seen as the result of fluctuations in supply and demand. By analyzing the hog futures cycle and the labor market cycle, this article explores the Chinese government's intervention methods and intervention purposes and finds similarities.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230516

    The Impact of COVID-19 on The Walt Disney Company Online and Offline

    This article will focus on whether the outbreak of COVID-19 has a positive or negative impact on the entire Walt Disney Company, and whether the advent of COVID-19 has mainly affected the online or offline development of Walt Disney. This article will analyze and discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the Walt Disney Company from three perspectives: profit, assets and liabilities. First of all, this paper will divide the profits into the following income. The net income calculation and analysis of Return on assets and return on equity are three main parts to specifically judge the impact of COVID-19 on Walt Disney Company. Next, this paper calculates and analyzes whether Covid-19 has a negative impact on Walt Disney Company from the perspectives of assets and liabilities. The final conclusion is that when the novel coronavirus pneumonia broke out, it had a negative impact on the whole company of Walt Disney, especially the offline income of Walt Disney was hit hard, but the online income of Walt Disney Company did not decrease because of the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, but continued to grow. But after two long years of fighting COVID-19, Walt Disney's online and offline departments have returned to normal and are expected to surpass pre-pandemic levels.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230517

    The Marketing Strategy of Live Broadcast Based on Consumer Psychology

    With the advent of the information age and the popularization of the Internet, the number of netizens is increasing year by year. People are becoming enthusiastic about online shopping. Diversified live broadcast content and types of live broadcast in various ways have gradually formed the development characteristics of interactive network platforms and semi-fragmented viewing, which is in line with contemporary people's pursuit of convenience and efficiency. This article will start from the consumer psychology of the broadcast room. Based on the analysis of three common consumer psychology -- seeking cheap, seeking convenience, following the crowd, this paper analyzes the marketing strategies corresponding to these three psychologies in the broadcast room -- promotion strategy, innovative live broadcast strategy, anchor positioning strategy. There are potential problems behind these marketing strategies. While attracting consumers to consume for them, consumers' rights and interests should be protected to avoid them falling into the traps of these strategies. Cheap commodities need strict control of commodity quality, online shopping in broadcast rooms need to eliminate security risks, consumer psychology needs to correctly guide rational shopping. This paper will describe the countermeasures to be taken to these problems.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230518

    Analysis of the Marketing Strategy of Meituan Enterprises

    With the rapid development of the Internet and society, people have entered a fast-paced life era. In order to meet the basic needs of life, food delivery has become a new industry. Meituan, as a delivery platform company, how to adjust its marketing strategy to meet the needs of consumers is worthy of academic research. By analyzing the marketing strategy and existing problems of Meituan Company, this paper provides optimization suggestions for Meituan Company. The research method of this paper is literature analysis. The conclusion is that the current problems of Meituan Company are insufficient publicity, insufficient incentive, low threshold of access to the software platform, and insufficient supervision of the merchants on the platform. This study suggests that Meituan should raise the threshold for merchants to enter and strengthen supervision to encourage merchants to provide higher quality meals. Meituan can also increase customer engagement by increasing offers and advertising on social media platforms.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230519

    Comparative Analysis of Marketing Strategies of Estee Lauder and Lin Qingxuan in Response to COVID-19

    The multibillion-dollar cosmetic sector may suffer monetary damages as a consequence of COVID-19 in 2020. Employment had decreased by 3.91% and sales had plummeted by 7.4%. Marketers must understand the shifts in customer behavior and attitudes in order to develop new tactics when revenue and jobs are declining. The author will compare the online data, related literature and past paper to investigate the application of different marketing strategies used by two typical cosmetic brands during the pandemic. The two examples are Estee Lauder and Lin Qingxuan respectively. They both recognized the benefits of social media, live streams, and advertisement. However, Estee Lauder focused more on advertisements whereas Lin Qingxuan paid more attention to the social media factor. Such differences also lead to the differ of increasing sales. As a result, due to the tactics used, the sales income of both brands has increased a lot. However, further steps needed to be taken by Estee Lauder and Lin Qingxuan to maintain the leading positions in the cosmetic industry due to the competitive environment and uncertain future.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230520

    Marketing Strategy Analysis of Catering Industry under the Background of New Media

    With the popularization of mobile Internet, the way people choose restaurants is no longer just through advertising, leaflets, word of mouth and other traditional forms. Social media has become a mainstream way for people to choose a restaurant. Businesses are also using social media to promote their stores. On social media, businesses can take videos of their products instead of traditional leaflets and pictures. This way can help consumers have a more comprehensive understanding of the merchant's products. Among these businesses, Haidilao, as a leading enterprise in China's catering industry, has been in a leading position in social media marketing. This paper will use literature research method and case study method to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of Haidilao in its external market environment, its own characteristics and existing social media marketing methods, and give suggestions for improvement. This paper introduces the macro market of China's catering industry in 2019-2021, and combines with the significance and methods of new media operation in recent years, taking Haidilao as an example, the literature review method and case analysis method are used to analyze the Internet marketing means used by Haidilao in recent years. This paper concludes the advantages and disadvantages of Haidilao in the application of Internet marketing at the present stage, and gives relevant suggestions and optimization measures.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230524

    The Impact of the COVID-19 on Pfizer: Past, Present and Future

    Towards the end of 2019, COVID-19 was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread worldwide, resulting in significant impact on the global economy. Despite the pandemic being a disaster for the world, it has also created business opportunities for some healthcare companies, with Pfizer being a prime example. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Pfizer and BioNTech jointly developed Comminate, a vaccine that has been instrumental in combating the infection and death crisis. At the same time, Pfizer also engaged in the development of effective drugs. However, Pfizer has also been exposed to some negative news, which has had a significant impact on its business performance and stock price. The impact of the pandemic on Pfizer can be reflected through the changes in Pfizer's operating performance before and after the pandemic. In the future, the ever-changing factors of the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to have a certain influence on Pfizer's future, and the company will need to develop new strategies to address future challenges in order to achieve long-term stable development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230526

    Research on the Family Income Gap in China

    This paper will start with an investigation of the current consumption situation (consumption structure) and the consumption concept of college students at Chongqing University, and investigate the family income, the monthly living expenses of students (whether there is a work study program) and the current loan situation of college students. Based on this problem, this study plans to use the questionnaire and literature survey methods to investigate the income gap of the families behind the college students through the consumption survey. Through the investigation and sorting of consumption, we can see the family income reflected thereby, and compare the gap between the rich and the poor reflected from different angles. This paper further considers the current consumption situation of college students and what consequences the income gap has brought or will bring, as well as the reasons affecting the income gap. At this stage, particular attention should be paid to the issue of urban-rural income disparity and inequality. In the context of China’s dual economy, household income inequality mainly comes from inequality between urban and rural areas. Effectively improving the income level of rural residents and narrowing the urban-rural gap are the main targets for achieving common prosperity. To achieve common prosperity, first, improve the income distribution system and the macro income distribution structure. Second, increase the income of low-income groups and accelerate the formation of an olive-shaped structure. Third, improve the social security system to alleviate the challenge of excessive income disparities among groups. Fourth, promote the equalization of basic public services in urban and rural areas, and address income inequality. Fifth, increase public investment in human capital and enhance social mobility.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230527

    Implementation of Index Rebalance Strategy Based on CSI800

    Index rebalancing is an investment strategy that takes advantage of changes in the components of specific indexes. It involves taking long positions when new assets are added and short positions when previous assets are removed. While this strategy has been widely applied in constructing hedge funds, most of the existing applications focus on indexes such as Russel or S&P 500, which primarily cover the US stock market. With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, there is a need for similar applications in the Chinese stock market. This paper selects CSI800, the representative index of the Chinese stock market, as the benchmark and constructs a portfolio based on it. The results of this study are intended to provide insights into the establishment of hedge funds in the Chinese stock market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230529

    The Improvement of the Legal Protection System for Private Equity Investors in China

    Private equity has become more common in recent years, and the number of investors involved is increasing. Participating in private equity investment can be very profitable, but there are also high risks, how to effectively prevent investors from encountering risks and ensure the good development of the industry is an important issue in front of us. The reason why private equity investors are vulnerable to risks is mainly due to two reasons, on the one hand, the high degree of information asymmetry in this activity, and on the other hand, because of the problems in China's relevant legal protection system, which is not yet perfect. Although China has promulgated some laws and regulations on the protection of the interests of private equity investors, there are still many loopholes in these laws and regulations, and they need to be improved, based on this, this article summarizes the problems existing in China's legal protection system for private equity investors, and puts forward suggestions for improving these problems, hoping to provide reference for relevant people.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230530

    Research on the Legal Review Standard of Anti-hostile Takeover by Listed Companies

    With the acquisition and merger of various companies in the international economic market becoming more and more common, the phenomenon of hostile takeover in order to obtain the interests and competitiveness of the company is also more and more, the target company to prevent hostile takeover also created a lot of anti-hostile takeover measures. The legal regulations of anti-hostile takeover are different in different countries, but the types of anti-hostile takeover events are rich, so that the current legal regulations are not perfect, the legality premise of anti-hostile takeover cannot be effectively guaranteed, and the legality of anti-hostile takeover cannot be effectively reviewed. Therefore, this paper will use research method, case analysis method and summary method to solve the problem that the current legal review standard is relatively vague and insufficient. It holds that a more reasonable legal review standard of anti-hostile takeover should be established by establishing relevant legal principles, reasonably distributing the decision-making rights of shareholders and the board of directors, confirming the rights and obligations of the decision makers of anti-hostile takeover, and protecting the interests of minority shareholders and employees.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230531

    The Merger between Rogers and Shaw

    The communication industry is an essential issue of people's livelihood, which has re-ceived the attention of government regulators and the public. As one of the largest mer-gers in Canada, the merger between Rogers and Shaw caused too much attention from the public. This paper discussed the status of the Canadian Telecommunication industry, the reasons why Canadian Government approved the merger, the potential risks of the merger to the participants in the communication market and the influence of Rogers’ service dis-ruption on national business and the merger. In addition, on the basis of macroeconomic theories, the author provides some remedial and preventive measures to combat similar future risks as well as the short-term and long-term effects of restrictions on the merger. At the last, the paper claims that the merger will increase the market power of Rogers, and it requires Canadian government to take action to regulate the telecommunication industry to improve people’s welfare because it closely connects with everybody’s life.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/25/20230532

    E-commerce Live Streaming Marketing and Consumer Psychology: The E.B.K Model and the “JD-fresh & Douyu” Marketing Case

    2016 has been known as the “year of China’s online live streaming,” the live streaming market entered a period of explosive growth. Online live streaming presents enormous marketing opportunities and releases consumer potential. This study constructs a consumer psychology-behavior model for online marketing based on the E.B.K. (Engel) model, which includes four stages: information input, information processing, decision-making, and external influence. The study focuses on the interaction between consumer psychology and online marketing strategies in the context of live streaming, and analyzes the mutual dynamics between consumer psychology and online marketing strategies, using the specific case of the “JD-Fresh & Douyu 6.18” marketing campaign in 2016. On the one hand, online marketing strategies influence consumer psychology through virtual interactions, which in turn affects consumer behavior. On the other hand, consumer evaluations and feedback after purchase further affect the adjustment and improvement of the online live streaming marketing environment. This case study demonstrates the feasibility of the model and provides new ideas for brand marketing and promotion strategies in future online live streaming.

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