Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies

    Conference Date






    978-1-915371-77-5 (Print)

    978-1-915371-78-2 (Online)

    Published Date



    Canh Thien Dang, King's College London

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231047

    Science Diplomacy's Contribution to and Exploitation of International Relations

    Science diplomacy is a novel academic concept. This project will analyse the positive function of science diplomacy in contemporary international relations and the use of science to achieve specific foreign policy objectives. This study aims to provide insight into the role of this science in external affairs work which analyses the impact of science diplomacy through a collection of journals, papers, news articles, and literature with the use of Document analysis. Even countries with mutually antagonistic political cultures may be able to approach international issues through concentrated scientific study due to the function of science diplomacy. Using the significance of science, the foreign service can influence or even meddle in the affairs of other nations. Therefore, scientific study diplomacy permits beneficial interactions between nations and the involvement of technologically and technologically powerful countries. The selection of science diplomacy is determined by the objectives of governments and diplomatic agencies.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231048

    Research on the Development of Implied Volatility in Option Pricing

    Option, as an important financial derivative, has received more and more attention from investors in recent years. This paper includes three parts, the first part introduces the concept of options, including the birth and history of options, the trading of options, and different types of options. Then it discusses the history of option pricing and two typical and classic option pricing models and then introduces implied volatility. The second part of this paper introduces the specific development of the option pricing models, the correction process of option pricing models, and volatility models. Different types of volatility, and their comparisons are included. And this paper also discusses the two functions of implied volatility, one is predicting the future and the other is for risk management and portfolio management. The third part concludes the first two-part and discusses the recent progress of option pricing and its volatility.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231051

    An empirical Analysis of Chinese Carbon Emissions Market Trading in the First Half of 2022

    Carbon trading is increasingly being adopted as a policy tool to limit greenhouse gas emissions. This paper empirically explores the international and domestic carbon markets in the first half of 2022. International relations, climate, energy, and unexpected events can impact the Chinese carbon market. The study revealed that trading activity in the Chinese carbon market needs to be improved. Furthermore, the number of critical emitters in China's carbon market varies significantly by region.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231053

    How Do Companies' Marketing Strategies Affect Consumers' Appearance Anxiety & Confidence and Promote Purchasing Behaviors?

    This work analyzed how marketing strategies for businesses impacted consumers’ levels of anxiety or confidence, encouraging purchasing behaviors. By conducting research on consumers who are experiencing social appearance anxiety (SAA) and analyzing two cases studies (Fenty’s Body Confidence-Oriented Marketing Strategy and Brandy Melville’s Controversial Appearance-Anxiety Marketing Strategy), our study concludes that social appearance anxiety-oriented marketing strategies have negative consequences on both consumers and companies. For the consumers, SAA can lead to mental/physical damage. For the businesses, the use of SAA can result in a loss of reputation. Finally, this report offers several recommendations for businesses’ marketing campaigns, and these recommendations can improve profits in the long run without harming consumers or risking their standing in the market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231054

    Evaluating B2C and B2B Entrepreneurial Opportunities Within the Chinese Ex-Pat Relocation Market

    The Chinese ex-pat relocation market is a huge and growing market with remaining problems that need to be solved. To help entrepreneurs get a better start in this golden market, this paper will disclose the best business model, B2B or B2C, that companies can choose to enter the market. Interviews, surveys, and competitive comparisons are used as methods to explore what service customers are eager for and what competitors in the market have done. After analyzing customer needs, the business model of competitors and differences between the B2B and B2C business models in the Chinese ex-pat relocation market, and with the discussion about the desirability, feasibility, and viability risks of the two business models, it is concluded that B2C is the best model to choose, because of its long-term development and revenue. Also, the B2C business model faces less risk when the whole market environment become to change.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231056

    Secondary Private Equity Funds in China

    Combining the latest era background, this paper mainly focuses on the growth of secondary private equity funds in China's capital market. Starting with the current macro form and development status, it will provide an overview of the private equity market and secondary funds, followed by an introduction to the development and status of S funds in the global capital market. Following that, author will go over the history and current state of S funds in China's capital market. Analyze the advantages and characteristics of the S fund based on its theoretical essence and actual business. Finally, watch for the development of secondary private equity funds in China. As one of the few articles on secondary private equity funds and transactions, the discussion in this paper enriches the content and literature of secondary private equity investment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231057

    Opportunities and Challenges for Commercial Brands under Fan Economy

    With the popularization of the Internet and a variety of social media, an increasing amount of investment was made in the market, and a new form of self-media marketing emerged. And as the market continues to grow and expand, some practitioners have become "celebrities" in this market, which we call an influencer. Different from the traditional celebrity or movie star. They are more engaged on the internet instead of offline activities through the "self-media" they mainly established by themselves. They gain financial benefits by advertising their own brand or endorsing other existing brands using their "celebrity" (or influencer) effect. The fan economy is booming because of this environment. Some companies have significantly improved their popularity, attracted lots of attention through the fan economy, and obtained huge profits. However, some negative content and value orientation in the fan economy may lead to threats to both companies and social stabilization. This paper will illustrate research on the "fan economy" in self-media marketing. Based on the analysis of different "self-media" platforms domestically and abroad. Demonstrating how companies should better seize the benefit and avoid the negative impact brought by this new economy in such an era.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231058

    The Influence of Network Economy on the Marketing Strategy of FMCG Clothing Brands

    This essay investigated the network economy as well as the factors that influence the marketing strategy of FMCG clothing brands. Network economy is becoming a common trend, and in the last twenty years have witnessed a huge growth in network economy. The next decade is likely to see a considerable change in the marketing strategy of FMCG clothing brands. This article aims to analyze how FMCG clothing brands have adapted to the network economy by changing their marketing strategies. It also finds out how companies are applying marketing strategies to make the network economy an opportunity for the FMCG apparel industry.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231059

    The Impact of Research Development and Innovation on Enterprise Development: Case Study of BYD and Pfizer

    After centuries of development, it has been proven that research and development (R&D) and innovation are the driving forces for a country to sustain its economic development and they are also essential to the development of companies. Scientific and technological innovation is strategic support to improve productivity and comprehensive national power, so companies' investment in innovation is increasing year by year. The main output of enterprises is concentrated in the fields of utility models, designs, and applied technology research and development. At the same time, national government policy has placed emphasis on the development of enterprise content and technological innovation, implementing a dual incentive system for enterprise R&D and innovation. This move has helped to energise companies in terms of entrepreneurship and innovation, while also reducing the cost of innovation and driving many new companies to invest in R&D. In this paper, the author discusses whether R&D innovation helps companies to grow by investigating the company’s size, governance structure, financial report, and A-share market returns. It is found that R&D innovation is a good driver of business development and can bring advantages to companies.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231060

    A Study on the Marketing Strategy Development of Logistics Companies under COVID-19

    Logistics involves the process of coordinating and moving resources – people, materials, inventory, and equipment from place to place. This paper focuses on the logistics market from the outbreak of COVID-19 to the present. The purpose of this research is to show logistics companies' perception of development and innovation during the COVID-19 pandemic. All findings were based on the data from specialised data research faculties and annual reports of logistics corporations, and a comparison of the company strategy applied before and during the pandemic was made. This helps to assess the companies from different aspects, such as challenges, preventive strategies, and future development. Yet, in the face of the pandemic, there was a lack of information on how logistics companies improve their business model. The results of this research suggest that the logistics company is severely impacted especially in the aviation industry, however, due to travel restrictions, companies are mainly focusing on the cargo transportation business.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231064

    Arbitrage Strategy Based on DHS Pricing Model

    The Daniel-Hirshleifer-Sun (DHS) is a three-factor model based on the investor’s psychology. It supplements the market factors of the CAPM model with two behavioral factors that capture commonalities in mispricing resulting from psychological biases. The DHS method focuses on two psychological biases affecting asset prices: overconfidence and limited attention. According to Daniel, Hirshleifer, and Sun, overconfidence in the investor tends to induce commonality in long-horizon mispricing.In contrast, the inattention of the investor tends to induce commonality in short-horizon mispricing. In this strategy, assets are priced according to the DHS model, and the unexplained return generated from this model is traded. According to the back-test, the explanation power of the DHS model is limited in Chinses market. As a result, the arbitrage strategy based on this model cannot generate a decent return in the long run. However, this strategy generates a significant positive return in turbulent market conditions. During these periods, investors tend to panic, and their psychology is especially unstable, so the two behavioral factors can explain the return efficiently.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231065

    The Impact of the Russo-Ukraine War on US Stock Return

    This paper makes an event study on the Russo-Ukrainian War effect of the stock return, including that of the S&P500, renewable energy industry, military industry, and catering industry, with a time window of 29 days (39 days for Tesla’s event). This article will gain the normal and abnormal returns by using linear regression and the least square method. Then, the hypothesis test will be conducted using the Summation of the abnormal rate of return (CAR). The result will be shown by whether the cumulative abnormal return breaks the confidence interval according to the graph. Research results show that even though the war harms the economy, it does not entirely reduce the stock return. This empirical study would be helpful for the investors to make their investment strategy during the War period.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231066

    Whether a Criminal is Likely to Re-offend? A Statistical Analysis Using Crimes Data from Broward County Florida

    Security issues have always been a significant threat to the safety of citizens in every country, and many of these re-arrested criminals have negatively impacted social security. Therefore, predicting and studying the factors of a criminal's re-entry to prison will significantly help maintain social order and improve the civil society happiness index. This study, it will show what elements are predicted to influence a criminal's return to prison and what aspects will have a higher proportion and weight based on the collected data set. In the dataset, each re-admission inmate is categorized according to gender, age range, race, records, etc. Use the Logistics model and OLS model to build a model to predict what factors most directly lead to a criminal being arrested and imprisoned again. Data research has proved that the "number of priors" is the factor that most affects the recidivism rate of criminals.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231067

    Research and Solutions to Common Problems in the Workplace

    This paper summarizes four common problems in the workplace through a study of the Rio Tinto workplace: sexual harassment, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and workplace bullying. These problems not only cause personal physical and psychological distress, but also result in persistent emotional and psychological hostile treatment of employees, taking out negative emotions on people around them, customers or colleagues. This can ultimately lead to the development of disruptive behavior in the workplace, further impacting company effectiveness. In the next part of the article, this paper proposes solutions to the above problems. Specifically, it is not only the individual level that needs to make corresponding efforts to prevent suffering from similar unfair phenomena, but also the state, society and workplace need to make corresponding efforts to improve the workplace environment and further enhance the productivity of companies and the work experience of employees.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231068

    Review on Three New Value at Risk (VaR) Models

    The emergence of financial derivatives complicates traditional financial products and increases financial market volatility. Individuals and financial institutions are both exposed to more complex and uncontrollable risks in this environment. Because of the risk's uncertainty, we must use reasonable methods to predict and estimate it in order to achieve the goal of risk control. This paper discusses three new VaR (Value at Risk) models that have emerged in recent years based on the ARCH family model using a method of literature review. The ARMA-EGARCH model, for example, combines the ARMA model to describe constant variance time series and the EGARCH model to describe heteroscedasticity phenomena, and theoretically can better describe the fluctuations of financial time series and obtain an independent time series with the same distribution. The sequence is processed using extreme value theory, which is the ARMA-EGARCH-GPPD model, in conjunction with the GPD model. We used the ARMA-EGARCH-semi-parametric method in conjunction with the historical simulation method and the parameter method to avoid cumbersome quantile calculation because the model algorithm is more complex. The generalized EWMA risk value prediction model has more advantages for financial data with large peaks.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231069

    Analysis of “Green Liability” on Environmental Damage--State Responsibility in International Investment Law

    Long before the birth of international environmental law, disputes over transboundary environmental damage have long existed in global trade and investment. Since the promulgation of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, with the arrival of the Period of Liberalization in international investment, the environmental issues involved in cross-border investment have skyrocketed, and international judicial bodies such as the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea have adjudicated a number of disputes over transboundary environmental damage. These “post-Rio” transboundary environmental damage disputes are characterized by complex afflictions, wide scope and serious damage. At this stage of adjudication, international judicial institutions have not developed relatively stable standards, principles and systems for ex post facto remedies for transboundary environmental damage. From the perspective of state responsibility, this paper analyzes the issue of transboundary environmental damage theoretically and practically, and explores the attribution, standards, and requirements of responsibility for cross-border environmental damage arising from international investment and the formation of the ex post facto remedy system, in order to provide reference for the establishment of a more sound and refined remedy mechanism of transboundary environmental damage in future international investment practice.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231070

    Weighting analysis of a portfolio of new energy stocks

    We studied the optimal weighting allocation for a portfolio of stocks in China's new energy vehicle industry, using data on circulation market value, price-to-earnings ratio P/E, growth of net profit after deductions, and institutional position share of the new energy industry for the three years 2019-2021. The return was also considered from the above four dimensions. Combining the above four dimensions, a better model for determining the weight of the new energy vehicle stock portfolio is obtained.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231071

    Studies of the relationship between international crude oil prices and stock prices of new energy companies and investor sentiment

    This paper uses the daily data of the CSI Mainland New Energy Index, WTI crude oil price, and CSI 500 risk premium from January 2019 to September 2022 as samples to explore the interrelationship of the above variables using the Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality test, impulse response, and variance decomposition. The results show that in the short run, international crude oil price and risk premium have a significant effect on the share price of new energy companies; in the long run, global crude oil price cannot affect the share price of new energy companies, as well as international crude oil price and share price of new energy companies have a significant effect on the risk premium.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231076

    Research on the Availability Heuristic and its Application

    The availability heuristic refers to individuals making decisions based on the availability of relevant events as a shortcut. The paper focuses on the availability heuristic and its own unique information processing mode through literature reading and analysis. According to the discussion of the application, it can be concluded that the availability heuristic affects individual risk cognition and decision-making behavior. Future research should explore the root causes, explore the relationship between the availability heuristic and other phenomena, and expand the research field of its application.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231077

    The Analysis of the Impact of Covid-19 on China’s Tourism Industry

    Tourism in many parts of China has been hit hard by the Covid-19 outbreak. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact on the tourism industry in China before and after the epidemic, the current situation of tourism shutdown and damage, and the impact on the overall tourism market. In addition, the study analyzes the current state of the population's willingness to travel. The paper will use the tourism industry in Sanya and Daqing as case studies. In order to get rid of the impact of the epidemic as soon as possible, Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises have to come up with reasonable and effective measures to cope with it. For this reason, China should work together to fight the epidemic and make a concerted effort for the early recovery of tourism.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231084

    Electric Vehicle Industry in Three Main Regions: United States, China, and EU Countries

    This paper will mainly focus on exploring the most significant factors affecting the sales of electric vehicles in China, the EU, and the US. After understanding the current situation of the electric vehicle market, the first step is using this information to compare and filter out important influencing factors and study them. Among many factors, electricity price, GDP, carbon dioxide emissions and the number of charging piles are the focus of this paper. Then with the help of R, some intuitive and clear conclusions are drawn during the research to help analyze the entire EV market. These conclusions not only allow people to understand the impact of certain factors on the sales of electric vehicles, but also provide a clearer and more detailed comparison of the three major electric vehicle markets.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231092

    Success of Nintendo Switch in 3C Marketing Model

    The Nintendo Switch is a type of game console that was designed by Nintendo and offered for sale in March, 2017. Since the Nintendo Switch was on sale, it was fascinated by plenty of customers and game fans to buy it because of its unique property of its combination of home game consoles and handheld game consoles, and it became the best-selling gaming console in 10 months in North American history. Most of the success of Switch will be attributed to its subversive design. However, the uniqueness of a new product is only the start of success for a company. The marketing strategy, which was based on the 3C marketing model and implemented by Nintendo, is the key to the success of the Nintendo Switch. This research uses a comparative analysis approach and statistics analysis, studying and comparing the data of sales, groups of customers, and company’s cost from Nintendo and its competitors, to arrive at the conclusion that, due to the special design for customers, efficient production for the company, and targeted strategy for competitors, the Nintendo Switch has become one of the most popular game consoles in the world.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231093

    SWOT Analysis of ByteDance's Business Market Environment

    The short-form video industry is expanding quickly in a culture where technology is improving quickly, and life is moving more quickly. TikTok is one of the top competitors in this industry, and this study focuses on the operations of ByteDance, TikTok's parent business. It also offers a SWOT analysis of the firm's exposure to external variables such as the market environment. The results demonstrate that ByteDance is still a pioneer in its field despite several dangers. The company's drawback is that it has often been fined for displaying unsuitable content and for allegedly gathering personal data from teenagers. By looking at its worldwide market, the report also reveals the financial worth of ByteDance. Due to the numerous variables that led to the delay and the paucity of convincing data to support the debate, this report's weaknesses include the fact that ByteDance's IPO is not thoroughly examined. Future studies will continue to look closely at ByteDance's strategy and how it may succeed where other large inter-net businesses are successful.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231094

    Sales Prediction of Big Mart based on Linear Regression, Random Forest, and Gradient Boosting

    With rapid development of machine learning and data science approaches, many retailers are employing sales prediction to aid in strategy formulation and profit growth. However, it is challenging for some small merchants to access vast volumes of data for analysis. This paper investigates the viability of predict sales in a small-scale retail supermarket, and evaluates the performance of linear regression, random forest, and gradient boosting method in the corresponding limited dataset. The selected metrics for analysis are RMSE, MAE, and R2 score. Experiment results indicate that the linear regression model has a relatively large error and suffers from underfitting. The two decision-tree based models, random forest, and gradient boosting, perform similarly, with gradient boosting model outperforms by a small margin. This study illustrates that it is feasible to perform sales forecasting by machine learning techniques on a small collection of data. It also identifies the issues in this process and suggests potential fixed, giving small retailers a guideline for making effective sales predictions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231098

    Analyze of the supply chain management advantages of Tesla and the impact of the epidemic

    In contemporary society, where the energy crisis is becoming more and more serious, the energy transition of automobiles is imminent. By studying the background of Tesla, its production strategy, battery technology, supply chain, marketing network, and operation mode under the epidemic, combined with the comparison of traditional car companies, this paper hopes to provide relevant suggestions and improvement methods to the energy transition of traditional car companies, which can make the electric vehicle industry develop more rapidly.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231099

    Markowitz and Index Model in Capital Markets

    Investment has become an essential subject in this age, and the Markowitz Model is one of the most classical theories. However, after this, a new model is based on it borne. Nevertheless, it is similar to the Markowitz, so we want to figure out why this new model is better than M. In this work, we use excel to make two models called Markowitz and Index and displaying them. As a result, we found that the Index Model does better than the M because of the higher slope. With this conclusion, investors can use them to choose their best combination.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231102

    The Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Purchase of Sports Brands by Chinese College Students

    Sports have been thriving in China since the two Olympic Games were held in Beijing, notably with the growing prominence of Chinese college students in the global sports consumption market. Currently, there is still a dearth of research on the factors that affect consumption in this population. This study investigated the classic international sports brands represented by Nike and the local new sports brands represented by Li-Ning. The author uses the 4P, STP, and SWOT analysis methods in management to clarify the purchase motives of Chinese college students for sports brands. The results of the interviews revealed that Chinese college students take many factors into consideration when choosing sports brands, such as cost performance, comfort, style design, brand effect, celebrity endorsement, etc; most of the students thought that cost performance and comfort were the key factors; Chinese brand Li-Ning and American brand Nike were widely welcomed among Chinese college students due to their high-cost performance, higher comfort, superior appearance design and other advantages.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231103

    A Comparison of Market Economy and Planned Economy: Based on German Democratic Republic and Federal Republic of Germany

    The economic confrontation between East and West Germany is one of the key topics. Researchers have reached a consensus that the market economy of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is more superior and more realistic than the planned economy in German Democratic Republic (GDR). However, the research still lacks a persuasive explanation about the deep and essential reason why market economy is better than command economy. Also, there are debates about the practical application and future extension of two economic formats. Thus, the study allocates and compares the international relations, important statistic and divergent economy systems of two Germanies, attempting to address these research gaps based on the fait accompli in GDR and FRG. The research outcomes illustrate that in all three domains did market economy in FRG overwhelmed planned economy in GDR, while the command economy also showed strength in particular areas. The outcome of the research indicates that market economy is more superiors and more functional in a macroscopic aspect than planned economy. To be specific, market economy obtains the strengths of developed productivity, a free market with countless chances, the opportunities to compete freely with high rewards and the ability of continuingly creating wealth to the society, while planned economy protects and promotes the equivalence of the distribution of social wealth. Based on it, the emergence of a highly integrated economy is forecasted, which is a combination of market economy and command economy but the main part is market economy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231104

    Analysis of Burberry's Marketing Strategy

    Over the past decade, digital marketing has become essential to an organization's market-ing strategy. As a leader in the luxury market, Burberry's digital marketing is the core part of its operation. It has successfully adopted digital marketing strategies to attract the younger generation. As a form of online marketing, it has enabled Burberry to build its brand image and revolutionize the marketing industry. The brand's digital marketing is re-flected in its product design, campaign videos, creative content, and choice of marketing channels. This paper analyzes Burberry's digital marketing strategy and provides sugges-tions for the luxury industry based on Burberry's analysis.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231105

    ESG Evaluation in Automobile Industry --Take Ford Motor Company and Tesla Company as Example

    With the outbreak of natural disasters and extreme weather, people are paying more and more attention to protecting the environment and society. This society is gradually de-manding more and more from companies. In this context, the new concept of ESG has emerged under the call of the United Nations. This article details MSCI's ESG scoring sys-tem and what it covers. Through the ESC scoring system of MSCI, this paper analyzes Ford Motor Company, represented by gasoline cars, and Tesla Company, represented by electric cars, to reflect the current development of environment, society, and governance in the American automobile industry. We found that the overall ESG development of the American automotive industry still needs to be improved. Companies should also strength-en the development of management social aspects and corporate governance while consid-ering the development of environmentally friendly products.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231106

    Analysis of Chanel Marketing Strategies in the World Luxury Fashion Market

    The luxury market is a unique fashion market that provides more than necessary products to satisfy people in the wealthiest class. Chanel is a French luxury fashion brand that was founded in 1910 in Paris by Coco Chanel. This paper uses 4Ps marketing theories to analyze the reasons for Chanel's outstanding marketing performance worldwide, especially in China. The conclusion shows that Chanel keeps its unique personality to attract more demands from young people and also insists on the consumer base of wealthy people.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231107

    Impact of the Pandemic on Online Grocery Delivery: Taking Instacart Company as an Example

    The Pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on online grocery shopping; the worldwide lockdown has made online grocery shopping a rigid demand for citizens. During the global pandemic, many online grocery shopping companies grew up rapidly to the enormous demand. Especially Instacart, the most developed company in online grocery shopping, gained huge success in late 2019. This article analyzes Instacart's strengths, such as the three algorithms, its weaknesses, and how it can grow sustainably after Covid-19.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231108

    The effect of experienced regret based on gender differences in auction

    This study aims to show how experienced regret influences the decisions made by bidders of different genders in an auction. - In this paper, the data is collected through a real-time recorded tv show about English auctions. In previous studies, female participants tend to be more risk-sensitive and rational than male bidders. Based on this trend, we hypothesized that female bidders would make quick decisions compared to male bidders after the bidder experience regret.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231109

    Should Apple Raise Wages? What Happens if They Immediately Raise Wages per Worker by 15%?

    This paper focuses on how increasing wages affects employees and companies. Primarily, it uses an efficiency wage model to confirm that increasing wages leads to increased employee productivity and reduced laziness, as well as increased firm productivity and attracting more highly skilled employees. The paper also examines what the benefits of a 15% increase in the minimum wage are to the firm. Increasing the minimum wage can reduce employee turnover as well as the firm's production costs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231110

    The Effect of COVID-19 on China’s Real Estate Market via Different Angles

    The trend of the real estate industry has become a hot topic of concern in contemporary society, and some studies have shown that after the epidemic, real estate has been conducted. The profitability of enterprises has declined significantly since there are many different opinions. This article aims to find the reasons from the three different perspectives of home buyers, housing enterprises, and governments based on the feature analysis method. The trend analysis method investigates the sales and pending sales of real estate products in the country. According to the analysis, real estate has indeed been on a downward spiral in recent years. The buyer does not have sufficient funds to buy a house. The cash flow of housing enterprises is also extremely tight, and in the year of the outbreak of the new crown epidemic, the volume of sales almost fell exponentially. Governments also need to continue to issue policies in a changing economic environment spectator control. In summary, China's real estate is still full of difficulties. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of real estate market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231111

    Comparative Analysis of Real Estate Financial Model: Evidence from Vanke and Evergrande

    Contemporarily, the impact of the real estate industry on the overall economy is particularly prominent. However, the financing mode and financial structure of the real estate enterprises are still lack of summary and scientific analysis. Therefore, through the difference analysis of the financing mode and financial statement of Vanke and Evergrande, this study summarizes the financial mode that is more conducive to the booming of the real estate enterprises. In this paper, we collect the financial statement and enterprise investment data of Vanke and Evergrande, carry out difference analysis, visualization, and trend analysis on the data, as well as compare and explore the different financial models of them. Enterprises should pay attention to the proportion of long-term debt in total corporate debt to avoid causing excessive capital flow pressure. The management of enterprise leverage and risk assets is crucial to the long-term development. A healthy enterprise cannot develop without the correct use and scientific management of loans and risk assets. They should focus on the rationality of short-term loans, effectively mitigate the pressure of debt repayment. The real estate financial model proposed here is a summary from Vanke and Evergrande, which is not a universal financial model. These results shed light on guiding further exploration of the rational financial models in the real estate enterprises.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231113

    The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Singapore's Resilience in Real Estate Market

    Contemporarily, most of the research into COVID-19-induced mania in the real estate markets leaves public housing in the cold. Singapore with its robust public housing system provides the world with a perspective on another merit of such a system, particularly when a country takes on exact challenges. Deployed the method of qualitative analysis, this pa-per extracts data to dissect Singapore's real estate market consisting of public housing, pri-vate housing, and commercial properties. We analyze common causes behind increased home prices in Singapore (e.g., a new stamp duty regime and the pandemic-induced fi-nancial relief measures) and conclude that the whole of the housing in Singapore will be resilient based on reverting supply and its fundamentals. Besides, the disparate systems in public housing and private housing have created space to shield their residents against shocks. Although it is hardly stopped to channel demand from private housing to public housing, private housing can cushion blows for the public. Additionally, by analyzing pieces of news and financial figures, the paper verifies the saying that "this is a world that is ever-changing." Even if the brick-and-mortar barely falters, the purpose of doing busi-ness is vicissitude. Therefore, the paper expects a transformation in commercial real estate in Singapore.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231115

    The Impact of Population and Fertility Policy of China on the Real Estate Market

    The population structure and development model of China have undergone significant changes, i.e., the new population is decreasing and the aging population is increasing. Meanwhile, population policies and supporting measures have also changed. The implementation of the three-child policy has also triggered discussions in the industry and the academic community has also carried out in-depth research on the relationship between the real estate market based on demographic changes. This paper will compare the results of the implementation of the two-child policy and the three-child policy. To be specific, this study will explore the impact of the population birth policy on the urban real estate market through urban classification, as well as the demographic dividend brought by the birth policy and changes in the structural demand for real estate. According to the analysis, real estate companies in the implementation of the two-child policy have faced new challenges and new opportunities. In the future, the birth policy will affect the family structure. This will further influence the development direction and project development of the real estate market.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231117

    Trust Products: An Option to Protect the Basic Needs of People with Disabilities

    The survey shows that people with disabilities in today’s society are still vulnerable groups in society, and some families with a certain economic foundation are unable to manage the property left by their parents due to their children's disabilities, resulting in the inability to guarantee their basic life. Based on mobile phone data and literature summary, this paper analyzes the difficulties encountered by the disabled, and combined with current policies and domestic and foreign solutions to this problem, comes up with a solution in line with China’s domestic conditions. The main objective of this paper is to find reliable products or models that guarantee the living needs of people with disabilities, and the main method of qualitative research is used. This study mainly concludes that the problems faced by people with disabilities include insufficient institutional supply, lack of dedicated custodial supervisors, and insufficient protection of other safeguards. This paper puts forward the idea of investing the amount people use to buy trust products and forming a variety of dif-ferent investment methods, which are mainly composed of stable investment and risk in-vestment, in order to fully guarantee the safety of investment and the rate of return of en-terprises, and ensure the normal life needs and rehabilitation expectations of the disabled.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231119

    Impact of COVID-19 on the Supply Chain of Small and MediumEnterprises: Case Studies on Food, Manufacturing and Hospitality Industries

    The constant flux in the supply chain has intruded on the demand and supply equilibrium throughout the globe. Firms that elongated the operation period have to pursue changes in suppliers to respond to the tumultuous trading environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aims to develop a framework for supply chain disruption for different small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Food, Manufacturing, and Hospitality industries. SMEs are susceptible to fluctuant economic change since the change puts an enormous threat to the sustainability of SMEs. Therefore, strategic foresight is crucial for SMEs to be competitive in the market. In this paper, rationalization and digital transformation are chosen as potential measures to conquer the unsettled economic environment. Reformation and innovation in SMEs could provide opportunities to maintain the firm’s long-term healthy operation. This study can help SMEs comprehend the importance of modern strategies and survive during the outbreak of COVID-19.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231120

    An analysis of Tsingshan Holding Group Co’s Big Short Position on Nickel Futures

    This paper analyzes the case study of the world’s largest nickel producer: Tsingshan Hold-ing Group’s $8 Billion trading loss. We examine Tsingshan’s trading position before and after the surge in nickel prices to better understand the rationale behind their decision to short 200,000 tons of nickel futures mostly on the London Metal Exchange. Moreover, this paper outlines the impact of Tsingshan’s trading loss on their various stakeholders. For in-stance, the rise of almost 250% in nickel futures resulted in the LME suspending all nickel trading on March 8th 2022 meanwhile creating a large liquidity crisis for the LME. On the other hand, Tsingshan’s broker China Construction Bank Corp and their largest counterpar-ty JP Morgan Chase provided large sums of loan packages so that Tsingshan could avoid defaulting on meeting their margin calls. We concluded that the case study revealed vari-ous underlying issues. One was the failure of LME’s ability to regulate OTC trading, and the second was Tsingshan’s poor liquidity management which put them in a vulnerable po-sition.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231121

    The Effect of Basic Education, Health, and Racial Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Poverty Rate in Los Angeles County

    This work focuses on the spatial distribution of poverty rates in Los Angeles County and the impact of multiple socioeconomic factors on poverty rates and distribution. The scale of the study is based on census tract to ensure the fineness of the study. The three socioec-onomic factors are basic education, health, and race. The primary research method was to perform regression analyses on socioeconomic factors and poverty rates. Initially, a con-ventional Ordinary Least Square regression analysis was conducted, and it was found that this model did not explain the distribution of poverty rates by region in Los Angeles Coun-ty well. Therefore, a geographically weighted regression model was applied to explain the relationship between different socioeconomic factors and poverty rates. It was found that basic education has the effect of reducing local poverty in relatively poor areas; while for wealthier areas, merely receiving basic education is insufficient, which leads to higher poverty rates. Health insurance is more of a burden for relatively poor areas, thus worsen-ing poverty, while for relatively affluent areas, health insurance can help alleviate local poverty by avoiding high medical bills. In areas where one ethnic group is concentrated, an increase in the proportion of one ethnic group has a positive effect on reducing the local poverty rate, but in areas where other ethnic groups are concentrated, it has a negative ef-fect on reducing the local poverty rate.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231122

    The Governance Model Investigation of Urban Village's Commercialization Based on Cultural Insight

    With the development of the city, urban villages, though an important part of the cities now, seem to be unable to avoid the fate of disappearing. Urban villages developed in China as a result of some original villages being surrounded by contemporary tall buildings. This paper reviewed the history and the development of urban villages, compared slum management in other countries to the management of urban villages in China, and takes Nantou Gucheng, an urban village in Shenzhen, as an example to explore the balance between economic development and preservation of cultural heritage. The paper shows that the urban village provided stalls for the brands like a commercial center, which was meaningless. The government should dig deep into the history of the urban villages. Besides, the government makes it possible to provide improved support to ensure old shops run by the original residents of urban villages for more than 10 years can continue to operate.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231123

    Research on Algorithmic Trading and Its Role in Pricing Efficiency in Chinese Stock Market

    This paper uses the A-share stock data in 2021 as a sample to study the impact of algo-rithmic trading activities on pricing efficiency through empirical analysis. Combining with the current market transaction structure and institutional characteristics in China, this study uses the proportion of small transaction volume STR as a proxy variable to measure the in-tensity of algorithmic trading activities in China. Empirical results show that algorithmic trading can effectively improve the pricing efficiency of Chinese stock market. In addition, an important way for algorithmic trading to improve pricing efficiency is to reduce stock market volatility and reduce investor heterogeneity. Through extended analysis, the find-ings demonstrate that algorithmic trading has a differential impact on the pricing efficien-cy of different stocks, with the highest degree of improvement in pricing efficiency for stocks with high market prices; at the same time, algorithmic trading can play a better role under the condition of sufficient market liquidity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231124

    A Comparative Policy Analysis for Cross-border M&A between China and Africa that Advances China's Leading Position in Mining

    China is still looking for resources and has recently engaged in aggressive cross-border M&A in the mining industry. Per China's 14th Five-Year Plan, the resource plan builds the foundation of China's rapid industrial development and growing economy. In recent years, it has been observed that acquisitions are focusing more on emerging markets' resources, such as Africa. Despite the negative effect of the pandemic, which cooled down cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBMAs) in the mining industry, mining M&A's strategic importance to global industrial development makes it a major area of study. This phenomenon of mining M&A becoming China's story is closely related to economic policies and regulations in China and Africa. Hence, this article develops a comparative analysis of the different procedures in China and critical geographies in Africa that affects China's unceasingly expanding mining industry through acquisitions in Africa. Through comparative research analysis, we find that China’s One Belt One Road Initiative (BRI) promotes CBMAs and investments in Africa and reduces operational barriers in policies and technology. The CBMAs’ success relies on a thorough understanding of local rules, major players, and legal policies in both nations. African countries have worked to improve their mining codes and raised their devotion to ESG to attract foreign investments. The inference is that Africa still possesses a great untapped potential for Chinese investors in the mining sector who understands the local market realities and can alleviate risks.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231126

    The Role of In-House Procurement According to Finnish Municipalities' Purchase Invoice Data

    Public sector is a large consumer for ICT systems and services development used for various public services. Tendering for such systems is governed by laws aimed at eliminating unfair advantages and offering all possible parties equal opportunities to participate in the tendering process. In this article, we study in-house procurement, where the acquiring organization is an owner of the subcontractor that delivers the system. Municipalities’ purchase invoice data is used to determine how greatly municipalities in Finland depend on in-house procurement. In conclusion, the understanding if included municipalities have ICT service and development units within the organizations needs closer examination, as in-house companies may offer municipalities with limited resources divided costs in the public procurement process.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231127

    Event Study: The Effect of the Passing Away of Queen Elizabeth II on the UK Stock Market

    This study assesses the heterogeneous impact of the death of Queen Elizabeth II on industry leaders in the United Kingdom. It reveals the firm-specific characteristics that lead to this heterogeneity. This study applies an event study methodology to a sample of 20 leading UK companies across a 250-day estimation window and a 40-day event window. According to the event study, the death of Queen Elizabeth II has had a differential impact on most UK companies for different industries. In contrast, companies in the Biotech, Oil & Gas, Mining, and Tobacco industries were less affected. However, companies in the Retail, Telecommunications, Banks, and Defense Contractors sectors show significant negative CARs. This article has implications for investors in identifying company sector-specific characteristics that drive premium returns and guiding diversification by improving the sectoral diversity of portfolios. However, the study is limited by a relatively small sample size. There is a gap in earlier research on the related change of kingship and stock market performance, and this study makes two contributions to the literature. The authors first analyze the impact of the death of Queen Elizabeth II on British firms. Secondly, the study also provides guidance on how investors can diversify across different sectors in the UK to reduce risk.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231128

    Analysis on the Profit Recovery of China's Budget Airlines after the Epidemic -- A Case Study of Spring Airlines

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the changes in profitability of Spring Airlines, the representative low-cost airline in China, after the epidemic and to explore the reasons behind the changes in profitability. I compared three years of operating income, operating profit and operating cash flow, plotted the time series of passenger number changes for 31 months starting from December 2019, collected from government websites and summarized the national relief policies for the airline industry after the outbreak. I find that both operating income and operating cash flow rise above pre-epidemic levels in 2021, mainly due to the recovery and rise in passenger numbers driven by the improvement in the epidemic and the strong growth forces inherent in the low-cost airline market; however, profits show the opposite trend, mainly because aviation fuel prices bottom out and then rise in 2020, driving up the company's operating costs and compressing its profits; I also explore the impact of policies and find that multi-faceted, aggressive policies do largely reduce the pressure on the company to survive during the epidemic.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231129

    Analysis and Suggestions on “Crude Oil Treasure” Event

    Since the global COVID-19 has broken out, the international crude oil market has been turbulent and crude oil prices have hit new lows. In April 2020, the Bank of China (BOC) "Crude Oil Treasure" May 2020 contract product caused 9 billion losses. The paper dis-cusses the case of BOC ’s “Crude Oil Treasure” and it is divided into the following three parts. First, we sort out the background and process of the BOC ’s "Crude Oil Treasure" and expound the operation principles of the product. Furthermore, we analyze in detail the reasons why the failure occurred. At first, we summarize the external factors under the background of the COVID-19. Then, we discuss the internal reasons for the occurrence of cross-position events. From two perspectives of product design and risk control, we try to analyze the inadequacies of Bank of China in this case. Finally, we combine the above-mentioned reason analysis and give suggestions on how to prevent such incidents from happening again from both the perspectives of both banks and investors.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231132

    Game Analysis on the Problem of the Pollutant Emissions in Chinese Neighboring Province

    With the continuous development of Chinese economy, the accompanying environmental problems have become a matter of great concern. Due to the spatial connection of neigh-boring provinces in China, pollution from one province can easily be discharged into the jurisdiction of the other province, which will inevitably cause interest damage of the later province. China's provincial governments have limited jurisdictional areas, the game exists between different provincial governments due to different interest demands. This paper analyzed the conflict of interests between local governments in Chinese neighboring prov-inces due to the emission problem, constructed a game model, analyzed the impact of the cost of pollutant treatment and economic compensation for pollutants on the emission de-cision made by neighboring provincial governments, and propose reference suggestions for Chinese neighboring provincial governments to deal with the pollution emission problem by combining the results of game analysis. The results of the study show that the two sides of the game can reach a synthetic win-win decision when the right to discharge is clear.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231133

    Exploring the Application Value and Path of NFT in the Artwork Industry

    With the continuous development of blockchain technology and the epidemic situation, the offline art market continues to decline. At the same time, the popularity of the nft market has attracted the attention of many art lovers. For this article, focusing on the combination of nft technology and art, this paper hope to solve various problems in the current market of nft art transactions through this introduction. The article is mainly divided into four parts. The first part describes the overview of blockchain development and the Chinese government's promotion of blockchain technology development. And introduce other literatures that focus on nft technology. The second part describes the current market structure and selects the first industry as the case. The third part uses swot analysis to analyze the feasibility of this technology in the market. The fourth part proposes the concept of 'a blockchain based digital artwork rights confirmation and circulation system' as a solution to the problem based on the above contents.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-09-13 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/17/20231137

    The Application of Soft Law in We Media Governance

    The we media is in a dilemma of management under the influence of online rumors, vulgar pornography and false propaganda. In such a situation, soft law provides a practical way to manage the disorder of news media. This paper focuses on the application of soft law in the governance of we media through literature review, and provides a practical way with soft law through the latest achievements of soft law in current legal profession, as well as comprehensive analysis of the situation of China's we media industry.

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