Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Management Research and Economic Development
Canh Thien Dang, King's College London
Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia
In this article, we aim to compare the bank’s loan financing business in China and the United States. We will focus on banks' personal lending business, including housing, student, and personal consumption loans. We will analyze the personal loan business of Chinese and U.S. banks separately and compare the personal loan business of both banks. The result of our comparison is that the government controls the lending system in China. China's loan system is formulated by the People's Bank of China, which is less liberal than the US loan system. China's loan laws are also imperfect, and there is a lack of third-party supervision. The United States has a complete system with guarantor agencies that China does not have. The government and the market are Multi-participation, and the Secondary Market is also involved, sharing the risk.
The emergence of economic modalities shapes different cultural societies by increasing platform economy in which consumers form different consumer behaviors between China and the United States. The previous study explained that U.S. consumers are resistant to online shopping due to privacy concerns. Previous research has studied the issue by interviewing U.S. consumers and by giving data for both China and U.S., and there are no possible solutions for this issue. Our study uses qualitative research to find databases between two countries and analyze consumer behavior differences. Our finding indicates that the unpopularity of the U.S. platform economy is because of the lack of a star economy, strong consumer rationality, and low level of vulnerability to the image. As opposed to previous assumptions, our study suggests adding diversified goods to the platform, offering appealing titles, and building convenient online consumption methods in order to make U.S. online shopping popular.
The range breakout strategy is a momentum strategy that involves taking a long position in a security when its price exceeds a predetermined range and a short position when the price falls below the range. Previous research has indicated that this strategy is well-suited to the price volatility patterns observed in commodity markets. Considering the significant expansion and di-versification of China's commodity market in recent years, we decided to apply the range breakout strategy to China's commodity futures market and assess its feasibility and profitability. Our research utilized historical performance data from the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange and Shanghai Future Exchange between September 1, 2012, and July 31, 2022, obtained from CSMR as our database. We focused on the top 27 most liquid commodity futures categories to construct our back-testing portfolio. Our approach centered around using volatility as the basis for entry signals in the range breakout strategy and signal weighting as a portfolio construction method. The results demonstrate that the range breakout strategy, based on volatility, is highly effective in China's commodity futures market. This research con-tributes to the enrichment of optimization strategies in China's Future Market. Furthermore, we explored the use of cross-commodity hedging and the Average True Range (ATR) indicator to further enhance the strategy. Although no practical improvements were discovered beyond the original strategy, this exploration offers valuable insights for future research.
Stock splits can increase liquidity and also attract smaller investors, although no single study has shown that stock splits have an effect on stock prices. The primary aim of this project was to find the impact of stock splits on stock prices. This paper uses Amazon and Google stock price data for research. The event study and market model were used to analyze the relevant data and to explore the effect. It includes a total of four events on the announcement day and implementation day of the two companies. The study results show that stock splits do have an impact on share prices.
This research paper investigates the difference between Chinese listed companies in the US and US companies regarding the quality of accounting information from companies’ annual reports. After a careful review of literature, researchers decided to apply classic M-score model for information processing and one sample t-test to determine the relationship between accounting quality and the country of the company. There are two hypotheses, and the first one is that the difference between the mean M-score of U.S. listed Chinese companies and the mean M-score of U.S. companies is not significant. The second one is the difference between the mean M-score of U.S. listed Chinese companies, and the mean M-score of U.S. companies is significant. This research result turned out to support the first hypothesis, indicating that the difference between the accounting qualities of the two types of companies is not significant.
Social Problems and Impacts: Nowadays, the economy is burgeoning around the globe. However, simultaneously, air pollution still remains pervasive on a global scale, exerting negative impact on human health, among which Carbon dioxide is in great proportion. As factories’ constant output will lead to growing carbon emissions, air pollution is becoming increasingly serious. In this study, we will focus on the relationship between the change in carbon emissions and the output in mining industry, to see that whether carbon reduction policy will affect economy, and whether incentive effect will happen. Research question: How does the change in carbon emissions affects the output of mining industry? Will the “incentive effect” happen? (Will carbon reduction policy boosts industrial transformation?) Research hypothesis: 1. An increase in CO2 emissions will promote the development of the mining industry. 2. Incentive effect will happen. Methods: Research and data-set analysis; OLS regression Model with Quantile-Quantile plots Key findings and results:1. Increase in CO2 emissions will promote the development of the mining industry. 2. Incentive effect might happen.
Information technology is a significant part of modern life and has changed society in many aspects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between developing informational technology and the economic growth within developing countries with female status by using data from various sources including the National Bureau of Statistics of PRC, World Bank, and research statistics from companies and papers. In the work, individual data is analyzed and connections between them are discovered and concluded. The data in the work show strong correlations between developing information technology and decreasing gender inequality with economic growth. The data from the EU report further confirms that point. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that information technology helps enhance gender equality and improve long-term economic growth in developing countries.
As the metaverse grows, leading businesses are already searching the metaverse for potential advertising partners. This article explores whether advertising in the real world can be directly applied to the metaverse. Through the method of literature review, this article summarizes some extant readings and proposes that with the characteristics of decentralization, shared environment, and immersion in the metaverse, advertising will be different from the real world. Moreover, the challenges and problems that brands will face are also raised. This article provides a reference on advertising strategies for brands who want to enter the metaverse, and also lays the groundwork for further in-depth research.
The term “supply chain management” first appeared in the logistics literature in the mid-1980s. The goal of so-called supply chain management is to plan, implement and control in order to reduce production costs and improve production efficiency. This paper aims to analyze enterprise supply chain management. The supply chain involves most of the products in our lives. The paper starts by presenting an overview of supply chain and the importance of it. This paper chooses Apple as an example to analyze supply chain management. Apple is the world's leading high-tech company, which can offer me some experience. The supply chain was not pioneered by Apple, but they do a good job. In the supply chain, part of the enterprise's business is external, which reduces costs and improves production efficiency. Apple is consumer-oriented. Some businesses are external and so on, which makes it a win-win situation for him and his partners. But there are also some problems in Apple's supply chain management, such as excessive exploitation of downstream suppliers and neglect of employee rights and interests. Then this paper discusses how they make changes in order to improve supply management. Finally, we summarize how to effectively manage supply chains in businesses. Apple needs to pay attention to the low-end market, strengthen the supervision of suppliers, reduce the exploitation of suppliers, and truly protect the rights and interests of those suppliers' employees. In addition, it should shorten and optimize the supply chain to make the company's operations more stable.
This study extends the understanding of game theory on cooperative utility and efficiency. The paper investigated the literature of Rubinstein Model with perfect information in Game theory by adding authors’ knowledge and experiment of how the degree of information affect effectiveness and efficiency of cooperation. This research is based on previous experiment by designing a new experiment and collecting qualitative data. Allocative efficiency is further discussed in our strategic game setup. Types of motivation were also evaluated in the investigation, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and image motivation, to analyze the possible correlation between players’ strategic behaviors and motivation. Motivation can lead to interactive cooperative behavior, leading to either success or failure of achieving allocative efficiency. This paper also analyzed the reasons behind uncooperative behaviors. Based on the findings, the theory of the importance of incentive-based cooperative behavior in bargaining games has been developed.
The COVID-19 virus, which emerged in the early 2020s, is now present on every continent. Small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) face significant hurdles as a result of the global epidemiological situation and the drastic changes in the global economy and trade. After implementing a number of groundbreaking financial regulations, China has seen impressive growth. Using Shanghai as an example, this research combines public policies with financial support for SMEs in order to cope with the negative economic changes caused by the COVID-19 to SMEs. The methods used in this research include investigation, literature review, and a case study. This research intends to stimulate legal reform and development as well as improve the quality of financial supervision in addition to fostering an environment that is more favorable for businesses who have been adversely affected by the COVID-19.
This paper summarizes the literature that studies the impact of industry characteristics on capital structure, and focuses on three factors, namely, growth opportunities, tangibility and firm size. We find that most literature supports the following conclusions: growth opportunities are negatively correlated with leverage, tangible assets are positively correlated with leverage, and enterprise size is positively correlated with debt level. At the same time, we find some limitations in previous studies. For example, scholars generally use linear regression as research method, and focus more on developed countries rather than on developing countries. According to these current situations, we give several suggestions for future research directions.
The impact of non-war geopolitical risks on stocks has not been adequately studied in the academic literature. This paper intends to explore whether disputes between countries or related political news have some impact on stocks prior to the occurrence of war. This paper focused on examining the impact of non-war geopolitical risks on the returns and implied volatility of the call option related to Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company’s stock. In this paper, different models are used to predict the stock returns and the implied volatility of some call options related to this stock and then compares the estimation with the real data in order to perform hypothesis testing to determine whether the difference is significant. This paper found that non-war geopolitical controversies do not affect the stock returns, but that investors' reaction to risk can be affected differently depending on the nature of the event.
In recent years, driven by the trend of baked food as the main meal and capital investment, the baking market has continued to expand with frequent clashes between old and new brands, therefore, both opportunities and challenges coexist. Established in 1992, Chinese baking brand Holiland quickly seized the market through a series of comprehensive and efficient marketing strategies, escaped from the "midlife crisis", and became a top domestic baking brand. Its marketing model is worth exploring. Based on the 5T theory of word-of-mouth marketing proposed by American marketing master Andy Senoviez, this paper analyzes Holiland’s marketing strategies from five aspects: talkers, topics, tools, taking part, and tracking. Through analysis, it is concluded that Holiland has a good reputation because it can arouse the identity of the Generation Z (Gen Z) consumer group and it is good at creating hot topics. Furthermore, it constructs media matrix promotion, pays attention to interactive management, and tracks customer feedback on a regular basis.
Increasing economic development and disposable income are transforming China into a middle-class society. As more and more people are able to meet their basic needs (e.g., leisure and employment), they are more inclined to pursue luxury products to fulfill their material needs. Consequently, luxury brands should use effective marketing strategies to attract as many potential consumers as possible to maximize their chances of tapping into this huge market. Therefore, this essay aims to provide insight into luxury brand marketing strategies in China, using the example of Louis Vuitton. The article adopted the 4P marketing model to identify the successful marketing strategies for LV through price, product, promotion, and place, as well as to provide additional advice on the existing strategies. While the research clearly indicates that these marketing strategies are efficient, LV should also take precautions to avoid diverting its target market from high-end consumers, do more research on their ambassador choices, co-brand with more native Chinese designers, and launch more China-exclusive special edition products.
Based on a data from January 2003 to July 2020, I compare market index with mutual funds in Chinese stock market. First, I compare the cumulative return of market with that of mutual funds. Mutual funds have obvious advantages. Next, I compare their volatilities, Sharpe ratios, Sortino ratios, and maximum drawdowns. Based on these performance proxies, Chinese stock mutual funds still outperform the market index. Finally, I research the persistence of fund performance. Mutual funds with better performance in the past year tend to have higher returns in the next month.
This paper makes an in-depth analysis of the development of international trade between China and RCEP members and calculates indexes of different dimensions to discuss the competitiveness and complementarity of trade. The results show that the trade structure between China and RCEP members is gradually changing, and the structure of export trade is constantly optimizing. The export structure of China is comparable to that of other RCEP members, among which capital-intensive and technology-intensive products have the most significant similarity, and trade competition is fierce. China's interdependence with other members is deep and growing. China's trade with the other 14 countries is, on the whole, a competitive and complementary relationship. The signing of the RCEP has brought many opportunities for China as well as many challenges. The research in this paper expands and enriches the research on the potential effect of China's participation in RCEP and provides a reference for the future development direction of China's commodity trade in the context of economic globalization.
Companies in society began to focus more on gender problems and provide more privileges for women by creating policies that recruit more female employees. The efficiency of this policy differs in various fields in different countries despite almost every company utilizing this policy. By looking at the data about the changes in the number of women employees and women employees-to-all employees ratio from the 20th century to now, this research paper compares the rate of female employment changes in two countries, Canada and the United States. To indicate which country, Canada or the United States, is more efficient about the policy based on different fields, this paper used linear regressions to observe the slopes of female employment changes from 1987 to 2021 in business, health, government, trade, transportation, and manufacturing fields. This paper also identifies which area has more efficiency in using policy inside each Canada and the United States.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of ambiguity on credit spreads, help investors to clarify the quantitative impact of ambiguity on the bond market, so that investors can make better use of ambiguity to make the most economic decisions in future investment activities.We obtain relevant data of maturing corporate bonds in China's bond market, measure the degree of ambiguity through bid-ask spread, explore the internal relationship between ambiguity and credit spreads through VAR model, and explore the impact of volatility of two variables, ambiguity and credit spreads, on each other through impulse analysis. We find that there is a negative correlation between ambiguity and credit spreads, and the unit change of ambiguity will bring huge fluctuations to credit spreads.
This article will analyze the supply chain management of Starbucks Corporation. It will include Starbuck's essential supply chain background, Starbuck's existing supply chain strategy, its supply chain pain points, social responsibility, critical financial data, the impact of Covid-19 on its supply chain, and recommendations. Starbucks can essentially maintain its position as the market leader due to a supply chain strategy that is disciplined, orderly, and adaptable to changing market conditions.