Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies
Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia
Canh Thien Dang, King's College London
Globalization refers to the cross and cultural dissemination of commodities, finance, technology and information in various countries, which will make various countries more connected to each other, and within economic point of view globalization will increase the connection between countries, international trade, business /financial cooperation and mutual influence in politics. The further increase in international trade not only increases the global interconnectivity and interdependence, but also has a great impact on UK's domestic economy. This article will take a look at globalization and international trade with China, discussing exactly how China is affecting the UK economy and the future of international trade with China.
With the widening of gender differences in modern society, the unequal treatment of women has also gradually deepened. On average, femalea are less educated than males in most of the provinces in China. This paper analyzes the relationship between educational levels of males and females in different regions and the regional economic development by using the gross regional product per capita during the last five years and annual data of male and female population with a college degree and above, which is sampled by province, and discusses whether gender differences will affect the local economic development. Through the analysis of existing data, it can be concluded that regions with a higher degree of gender discrimination have a lower GDP, and the gender discrimination rate is negatively correlated with GDP. Finally, this research summarized possible explanations for this phenomenon from the aspects of education level, labor participation rate and so on. So, because of gender the average education level of women might be negatively affected by discrimination, thus affecting the quantity and quality of work undertaken by women in society. Similarly, labor participation rates can also be affected by discrimination against a particular sex, where discrimination against men in a particular area or industry prevents male from entering the factory and contributing to the labor force. These phenomena will definitely bring about an undervalued development potential for the industry or area.
With the informatization of versatile platforms, e-commerce has become the most popular promotional channel. As the key element of the marketing mix, price strategy plays an almost decisive role in a consumer’s willingness to pay and consumer satisfaction. Thus, this study will explore the impact of bundling strategy on consumer psychology in big data e-commerce. The result shows that the bundling strategy can take advantage of big data to maximize product value perception and consumer satisfaction. Through the previous literature, the article finds many complex psychological aspects of consumers in bundle pricing under big data e-commerce. However, there are few studies on the specific elements and degree of impact on consumer psychology. Therefore, future studies can focus on using qualitative analysis to explore the influence of bundling strategy on consumer psychology in big data E-commerce and focus on one of the e-commerce platforms.
This paper mainly introduces the Differentiation strategy which is one of the three basic strategies. For an enterprise, in order to occupy the leadership advantages from the competitive market, its managers should improve the comprehensive and sustainable development ability of enterprise management, as well as independent innovation and development ability from the perspective of business strategy, and rely on product technological innovation, scientific enterprise management and other comprehensive means, to form a differentiated competitive leadership advantage suitable for their own characteristics. Therefore, the differentiation strategy causes various products in different markets. This paper will compare and analyze the differences between different social Software on a strategy level by using literature analysis. It can be concluded that a differentiation strategy can help enterprises survive or even go beyond old companies in the market by attracting different customers group.
The "demographic dividend" has brought abundant labor resources and low labor costs to our country. However, the official data released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2021 shows that China's total fertility rate is 1.3. With the obvious trend, this endowment advantage will no longer exist. It is of great significance in contemporary China to calculate the cost of family fertility that leads to low fertility willingness, and to formulate policies to increase the fertility rate. Therefore, the paper builds a model to calculate the cost of family fertility in China through the equivalence scale theory, and calculates that the equivalence scale level of the family fertility cost in China is 1.41, which is a relatively high level in the world. On this basis, the paper analyzes the reasons for the high cost of fertility, and summarizes the shortcomings of the paper's research, therefore putting forward suggestions for future research.
Venture capital investors focus on early-stage enterprises, the market participants have limited information about their prospects. Their investment decisions involve complicated factors and potentially the failures in the past can affect their future investment decisions. In this paper, within the context of venture capital investment, I examined the impact of the rate of IPO failures in one sector on future investment in the same sector. However, the direction of effect is ambiguous. The learning effect from past failure can be positive if the VC investors gain valuable experience from it. Alternatively, the learning effect can be negative as it reveals the VCs’ incapability to invest in that given sector. I exploit a data set from Preqin and a fixed-effect model to help me identify results that are consistent with a positive learning story. This finding contributes to our understanding of how VC investors make investment decisions and how financial market participants react to failures more broadly.
The main content of the whole article is to express that real estate has caused too much pressure on young people. As we all know, the real estate business has become more and more prosperous in recent years, and many rich people like to buy many houses, because they think the house will preserve its value, they speculate the house price very high. And it is the young people who suffer from this. Compared with ten years ago, they need to spend more time and energy to complete the goal of buying a house. This This is especially true after the outbreak of the epidemic. In the United States, many companies have to lay off employees or reduce wages to maintain the operation of the company in order to solve the losses caused by the epidemic. It is difficult for graduates to find jobs during this period, let alone one Set up your own house.
The global M&A market has been growing rapidly in recent years. With the development of emerging markets, M&A can be seen in almost any event that affects the direction of the market, especially in stock market volatility, where the impact of M&A is sometimes a factor that cannot be ignored. In many different situations, M&A can have a different impact on overall stock market volatility. Through this process, we will show the intrinsic relationship between stock market turbulence and corporate M&A transactions through analysis to improve the in-depth measurement of M&A activities by companies. From several perspectives, we will use literature reading and analysis methods to conduct an analysis of the impact of corporate mergers and acquisitions. The study will show that the relationship between stock price fluctuations and M&A transactions is complementary, and that the development goals and status of the firm will determine whether M&A can have a positive impact on the stock market.
Digital currency is one of the vital innovative products of Fintech and it has influenced the whole financial industry and supervision field. It first came with personal digital currency, and it changed the forms, circulation, and payment methods of traditional currencies, and different currencies have their own intrinsic value. In the meantime, the central banks of various countries have also tried to control digital currency. Central banks reduce the cost of issuing currency and improve the efficiency of payment. Moreover, the regulatory authorities of various countries have improved the rules when facing the security problems of digital currency. The paper, through methods of qualitative research and literature review, focuses on three parts, which include the difference between private digital currency and central bank digital currency; the difference between each private digital currency; and the difference between central bank digital currencies in various countries. It hopes to provide some insights for further development in this field.
This paper analyzes the business strategy and financial performance of PepsiCo. PepsiCo is one of the most successful consumer goods companies in the world. With the demand of business expansion, PepsiCo has just experienced the 2019 coronavirus disease period. It is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of PepsiCo's performance to understand what strategy PepsiCo is taking and PepsiCo's performance in this unique period. I have determined the strategy of Starbucks through Porter's five forces analysis, SWOT analysis and value chain analysis, and given the overall strategy adopted by PepsiCo. Next, i will first give an overview of PepsiCo' annual report. Then, i made a common size analysis on the three financial data. This analysis reveals PepsiCo's ability to operate well and generate revenue in the future. It is hoped that it can provide enlightenment for the operation of consumer goods companies, and stakeholders can have a new understanding of PepsiCo.
As an industry with a very long history of development, diamond products are now very diversified in marketing methods, but adding love attributes to products is still the mainstream of diamond marketing. In previous studies, the research generally focuses on the diamond export control adopted by De Beers and the marketing miracle of "A Diamond is Forever." However, today's diamond industry has a more innovative way of publicity. This paper is making efforts to analyze what impact love and brand marketing can bring to the diamond industry. The turnover changes in recent years of the Chinese diamond brand Darry Ring and its unique and innovative marketing methods are going to be analyzed. The result shows that the marketing method of "a man can only customize one ring in his life" adopted by Darry Ring has brought great social attention and sales growth to the brand. At the same time, this innovative concept has also helped Darry Ring successfully shape its brand image, which is obviously different from the traditional diamond product brands and is highly sought after and welcomed by consumers.
The Residential Mortgage-Backed Securities market (RMBS) has played a large role in enhancing the liquidity of mortgages, and in relieving the pressure of capital constraints on commercial banks. There are three main risks associated with residential mortgage-backed securitization: prepayment risk, interest rate risk, and default risk. This paper analyzes the prepayment risk in the "JIAMEI 2018-1"RMBS, the largest single RMBS product of the Postal Saving Bank of China (About 14 billion RMB). We introduce the JIAMEI 2 018-1 and study the factors that affect its prepayment risk. Using data, we conclude that the products involved in this case have comparatively low prepayment risk, even under the double influence of the housing finance policy tightening and the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
The water resource pollution in China is very serious, and as a kind of public goods, water resource is easy to cause "free riding" behavior in the process of consumption. How to eliminate the interest conflict between different economic subjects? Environmental administrative punishment is one of the answers. This measure based on the Pigou theory is the foundation of China’s environmental governance. From the perspective of game theory, this paper analyzes the effect of administrative punishment means of the water resources environment by constructing and analyzing the game theory model and concludes: that the unreasonable setting of the administrative punishment system for the water resources environment and the incomplete implementation process make its effect poor. Finally, the paper puts forward improvement suggestions from three aspects: strengthening supervision, system innovation and the application of Coase theory.
This paper aims to discuss how managers consider capital structure variations when deciding which purchases to make. Compared to their debt ratio, highly leveraged companies are less likely to decide to buy cash. These companies purchase unimportant goals at a bargain. The capital structures of over-leveraged companies are changed by their managers in anticipation of a merger or acquisition. The methodology entails the approach to the research, and the right debt-to-capital ratio was found by using Compustat and the Center for Research on Security Prices (CRSP). These data will be used in assessing the estimation model and various regression and correlation analyses. Finally, they look for acquisitions that will add the most value. This research examines the relationship between capital structure and investment choices in the context of financial frictions, highlighting the importance of capital structure in investment choices.
Le.com (formerly LeTV), as the first online video company listed in A shares in China, which plays a role as a weather vane for the online video industry, was reported to had committed financial fraud for up to ten years from 2007 to 2016, mainly by fabricating business with related companies and third-party companies to construct a false capital cycle. On May 2, 2021, the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) issued a penalty decision. By introducing the background of Le.com and its main fraud methods, based on the three major reasons of case analysis and fraud triangle theory, this paper focuses on the problems of its ownership concentration and imperfect audit system, and analyzes the specific motivation analysis of Le.com financial fraud.
From one of the world's most impoverished countries to currently the world's most active international trade participant, China and its economic growth in the past few decades is a constantly discussed and debated topic amongst the world's most prestigious politicians and scholars. Aware of China's economic accomplishment, officials from developed and developing countries ponder if China's triumph can be replicated in developing countries that aim to repeat China's success. Although some developing countries, mostly ones that are limited in economic size, have great ambitions to follow the path China once took that led the latter to prosperity, many experts warn that China's economic growth was deeply reliant on the size of its economy and questions if such experience can be replicated outside of economies massive in size, for instance, Singapore. Therefore, this essay aims to determine if Singapore can be as developed as it is if China's past developmental plans were utilized in this relatively small economy.
As international financial markets continue to diversify and become more complex, the application of behavioral finance in financial markets is becoming more and more widespread. At the same time, as people's living standards continue to rise, the securities market is a relatively optimal investment choice. To protect the wealth of investors and improve the standard of living of the nation, it is essential to ensure the stability of the investment market, which forces us to study the impact of imperfectly rational behavior on the stock market. Overconfidence bias is one of the most common types of imperfectly rational psychology. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the impact of overconfidence on investment portfolios. This paper aims to examine the effect of overconfidence bias on an investor's investment strategy through a literature review and empirical methods. The paper concludes that overconfidence bias shows a different relationship with return yield in the initial, completion, and diminishing periods. Secondly, overconfidence bias for investors exists. The characteristics of better-than-average-effect (BTAE) and the illusion of control have different effects on trading volume, return volatility, and market efficiency, and the role of contrarian investment strategy (CIS) in overcoming this bias is discussed.
A company’s marketing approach is of paramount importance to itself, and consumers can find out about the marketing of such mega-corporations from a different perspective than they do. Apple, as one of the world’s leading super companies, has been in the spotlight for many years. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyzing Apple’s marketing in the Chinese market, identifying problems and making suggestions. This paper uses the marketing theory of 4Ps to analyze Apple’s marketing strategies in the Chinese market and makes recommendations based on the problems that exist. Apple’s marketing strategies in China are undoubtedly successful, but there are also some problems, such as the relatively high price of Apple products, the questionable quality, or the almost nonexistent promotion activities that can not attract consumers. Therefore, a more comprehensive and professional investigation and practice of these problems will more effectively solve these problems.
The Covid-19 pandemic has brought global inflation. Billions of people have been confined to their homes for months, unable to go to work. As an example, in the United States, which has the largest number of Covid-19 confirmed cases, the impact of the epidemic on their economy cannot is a big problem. According to the research, many of them contain the development of inflation by the Covid-19, but few papers research talk about the response of inflation for Covid-19 in U.S. central bank and the company overall. This research could serve as a model for other countries facing inflation. Therefore, this paper will use the background of the United States to explore the causes of inflation, the central bank's strategy, and how inflation reflects the difficulties faced by American companies. This paper mainly uses literature, case, and data analysis methods. Based on this paper, it was found that the fundamental factors of inflation were the imbalance of supply and demand and the break of the supply chain. But because of the Federal Reserve’s initial miscalculation about the duration of the Covid-19, they switched monetary policy from loose to tight in order to curb inflation. And American companies Apple and Amazon are both facing rising costs, labor shortages, and supply chain disruptions, but their solutions are different because of changing consumer preferences.
As a major international business initiative proposed by China in 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative has deepened strategic economic cooperation among countries along the route and has positively contributed to the development of regional economic integration, as well as achieving exports and exchanges in multiple areas such as technology, culture and education, which enables China to play a more important role on the international stage. In order to ensure the development of the Belt and Road Initiative in a normative direction and to further ensure that the constraints and challenges in its implementation can be effectively addressed, the mediation, regulation and guidance role of international commercial law must be fully utilized and brought into play. In this article, the value of the Belt and Road Initiative and related positive role it can play are discussed in the context of international business law, as well as the possibilities for the development of international economic trade.