Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies
Canh Thien Dang, King's College London
Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia
This paper is targeted at the policies and adjustments of the United States against the nuclear program of Iran during the administration of Donald Trump and Joe Biden and attempts to analyze the reasons and motivations. After the Trump administration took office, the United States unilaterally withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and implemented an all-round suppression of Iran. On the contrary, President Biden has shown a strong willingness to rejoin the deal and released goodwill to Iran frequently. Biden’s policy seems to be significantly different from that of Trump, but it does not deviate from the framework of the Trump administration. This paper explores the foreign policies of the two governments towards Iran through three levels of analysis and uses cognitive psychology to analyze the influence of Trump's personal factors on his policies. It concludes that Trump's policies on Iran nuclear issue during his administration are mainly affected by his political personality and national security environment, while Biden's strategic adjustment to the foreign policy is more influenced by political pressure at home and abroad besides national security.
In response to the aging population, China has proposed a new family planning policy, the "three-child policy." On May 31, 2021, the Decision on Optimizing the Fertility Policy to Promote Long-term Balanced Population Development pointed out that China's fertility policy should be further optimized, which included that a couple can have three children. On July 20th, 2021, “the Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Optimizing the Fertility Policy to Promote Long-term Balanced Population Development” was announced. On July 21, the "Notice of the Office of the National Medical and Social Security Bureau on Doing a Good Job in Supporting the three-Child Policy and Maternity Insurance” was announced. On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed a decision on the revision of “the Population and Family Planning Law”. The revised law advocates marriage of the right age, good prenatal and postnatal care, and that a couple can have three children. However, it is a great challenge to women, so whether this policy can be effectively improved and implemented will depend on the current social and political development situation. This paper will analyze the "three-child policy" from both advantages and disadvantages to predict its impact. This is beneficial because it can reduce the aging of the population and promote social and economic development. The disadvantages are the harm to women, physical influence, psychological pressure and social tolerance towards women, and whether the company will reject female employees.
The phenomenon of Asia-African relations has received considerable attention since the start of the 21st century. As China and Japan are two leading Asian donors of Africa, their foreign aid policies are worth analyzing and comparing. Among African countries, Ethiopia is located in the horn of Africa, whose strategic position is relatively significant. In addition, Ethiopia has not been colonized in the history, which makes this case more meaningful. Most of the previous studies have concentrated on either one specific aspect like economic or certain country’s foreign aid policies towards Ethiopia. This research aims to analyze and compare China’s and Japan’s multifaceted foreign aid policies towards Africa and Ethiopia in particular. For this purpose, the primary data and materials have been collected from the official websites, official reports, and previous studies. The result shows that their differences involve political, economic and societal aspects. The Japanese government has tended to design detailed policies, guide companies to invest in Ethiopia and cooperate with the NGOs. On the contrary, China’s policies towards Ethiopia are more general, and the Chinese government has played a leading role in economic aiding than the Japanese government. In terms of the societal aspect, the Chinese government is more tending to cooperate with the Ethiopian government instead of the NGOs.
With the development of Internet technology and the application of big data, the collection, dissemination and use of information become more convenient, people's private lives become more transparent, and concerns about information disclosure or illegal treatment of personal information also follow. By using the methods of literature analysis and comparative analysis, this paper tries to improve the legal protection mechanism of personal information in China by studying the latest legislation in Europe and the United States, and combining the national conditions and actual situation in China. Although the CCPA of the United States and the GDPR of the European Union have great reference significance, they should also pay attention to the potential problems existing in these two legislations, demonstrate the applicability of their practices with an objective and critical view, and formulate a personal information protection legal system with strong applicability that is suitable for China's national conditions.
With the development of market economy and modern science and technology, some listed companies' financial frauds are constantly discovered and exposed. Taking Zoneco as a case, combining with fraud triangle theory, this paper analyzes the background, causes and means of financial fraud in enterprises, which is different from the traditional way of combining financial statement data analysis with on-the-spot inventory. This paper discusses that modern big data technology provides a more innovative and intuitive method for identifying fraud, and broadens the way for maintaining the stability for the securities market.
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is a subsidiary of project management. It is used to control and coordinate the projects in various organizations' portfolios with clear objectives of maximizing the project results, balancing portfolio threats, and aligning the projects to meet the business's strategic aims. In many organizations, PPM is ranked on a higher level than the project management concept because the goal of PPM is to achieve the strategic objectives of an organization. However, risks typically arise during project implementation and management. The project managers constantly work to minimize the project risks while simultaneously maximizing the intended values of a given project. The project management teams should manage the risks while achieving the strategic goals and objectives of an organization. This paper discusses the relationship between PPM and risk management during the project implementation process. The paper explored the use of a systematic literature review to come up with these critical findings. The author recommends that there's a need to use empirical data to validate the existing theories and published literature findings. The project Portfolio Risk Management (PPRM) has practical and theoretical approaches in risk management (RM), decision theory, and modern portfolio theory. The use of a systematic literature review approach was used in the execution of this study to gain more insights into the influence of risks on project portfolio and success, identification of the project portfolio risks, and the management of risks in the project portfolio management context.
When people think of Hong Kong in the 1960s, most will recall the industrialized prosperity of Hong Kong. Most scholars regard the industrialized prosperity in the 1960s as a direct consequence of the U.S Embargo Policy launched in the 1950s, during the Korean War. However, a no less important driving force, the impacts of the dynamic role of local businessmen and local chambers on the growth of industries has been overlooked. Given the current academic neglect of the local dynamic role, this paper aims to analyze the driving force played by local actors such as associations, chambers of commerce, and even merchants in promoting Hong Kong’s industrial growth, especially in the shipping industries. This paper will demonstrate the effect of embargo policy as well as the contribution of local dynamics, which altogether provides a comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting Hong Kong’s industrial growth in the 1950s.
Gender equality has been a global debate both within the political, social and business environment. Gender equality according to most researchers have established a positive relationship with performance of organization. Furthermore, in relation to the impact gender equality has on business strategy execution, it would be argued that having gender equality enhances effective execution of business strategies. The study seeks to find out the gender impact on the execution of business strategy. This would include conducing a survey suing questionnaires from 50 women.
With the expansion of China cosmetic market, many cosmetic groups are engaging in expend their market share. However, the development of cosmetics led to diversified consumers’ needs. Some of customers want to get more skincare products for sensitive skin meanwhile the others care about makeup products' characteristics. Various demands have led to the constant updating of the development strategies of the cosmetic groups. Through reading the literature and research reports on Chinese cosmetics in recent years, it is found that the Chinese cosmetics market is oligopolistic and L’Oreal is the biggest one in several big international groups. However, the rise of domestic cosmetic brands makes these big international groups feel threatened. Domestic brands have a better understanding on physiological and psychological needs of Chinese, even Asian consumers, which make them have the strong competitiveness. In the paper, 4Ps model and Porter’s five forces model are used to analyze the current situation of the cosmetics market and the competitiveness of L 'Oreal Group. Finally, some implications are demonstrated from the perspective of culture, brand introduction, optimization of advertising structure, and consumers’ demands to help L’Oreal improve its competitiveness.
With the normalization of the epidemic in the United States, the COVID-19 virus is increasingly regarded as a more contagious "big flu" with higher-fatality. The new coronavirus has mutated to make it more susceptible to multiple infections, and some patients may experience symptoms that last for months or years. Unlike previous direct economic crises, the COVID-19 epidemic has played a negative role in the transmission of economic policies in the process of economic recovery, reducing the pertinence of economic policies and the speed of full resumption of work and production. Given the accumulation of negative issues caused by economic policies in the U.S. since the epidemic, this article will discuss the current state of the U.S. industrial economy, high inflation and Fed policy, as well as the international environment and cooperation.
As a major engine of the capital market, the stock market is favored by investors. But the huge profit space and operability are also easy to breed the soil of corruption and fraud. At present, due to the increased participation efficiency of short-selling institutions, the financial risks faced by enterprises have further increased. Through the case of Luckin coffee, we observe the stock price changes after it encountered short selling, combined with the model of the arbitrage pricing principle to find the role of short-selling institutions in the market. By disclosing corporate financial fraud, short-sellers can improve the effectiveness of market supervision to a certain extent, reduce the occurrence of stock market premiums, and bring stock prices back to their true levels. On the premise of ensuring the stability of the stock market and introducing a reasonable system, the Chinese market can also consider developing a similar mechanism to inject fresh blood into economic development.
The financial structure of a firm is often regarded as the most essential factor influencing its operating performance. The real estate industry, as an important part of China's current national economy, is a typical capital-intensive industry with a large demand for capital. However, the industry's characteristics lead to a relatively slow return of capital in the real estate industry, putting pressure on the industry's financing capacity and capital structure. This paper divides the capital structure into two components: gearing ratio and debt structure, and takes China's real estate listed companies from 2010 to 2020 as a sample. The influence of capital structure on the performance of listed companies is examined empirically. It is found that there is a non-linear relationship between gearing and firm performance, i.e. an inverted U-shaped relationship. This paper still holds after robustness tests such as variable substitution, which are hoped to be useful for business performance, future government regulation and policy implementation.
The establishment of the cross-Straits common Market was first proposed at the beginning of this century and has repeatedly appeared in official government documents. So far, however, progress on the common market has been slow. Therefore, this paper mainly studies the restricting factors of cross-strait common market. This paper first analyzes the status of the common market in the process of economic cooperation. Then it analyzes the current situation of cross-strait cooperation through trade, investment, industrial layout and Preferential Taiwan policies. Finally, we find that political opposition, structural contradiction and political opposition are the restrictive factors for the establishment of cross-Straits common market.
This paper contributes to the modern neoliberal institutionalist line of thinking and international relations studies by revisiting and discussing neoliberal arguments under today’s socio-economic and political background. The goal is to defend neoliberal institutionalism through a brief and yet systematic review of classical neoliberal works. An interdisciplinary approach is taken through paralleling neoliberalism with theories in philosophy (utilitarianism and pragmatism) and politics. Criticisms from neorealists and worrying issues like state-contestation and counter-institutionalization are discussed and defended. Afghanistan’s accession to becoming a WTO member has been used as an example to show the positive influence that international organizations and institutions can exert in the 21st century.
With the rapid growth of urban residents' private cars, the problem of parking in the old communities has become increasingly prominent. Taking the T Community in the Qinhuai District of Nanjing as an example, this paper analyzes the current situation and problems of residential parking through an on-the-spot investigation. This paper uses questionnaires and interviews to analyze the parking needs of residents, and proposes a parking problem governance strategy, in order to provide a reference for alleviating the parking problem in the community. Key recommendations include excavating the parking space inside the community, expanding parking resources by rectifying road resources and sharing parking at different times and peaks, and optimizing management measures of community parking.
In the age of advanced digital technology, the traditional medical industry is gradually expanding its Inter-net medical business. Internet hospitals are gradually coming to the public. Internet Healthcare refers to a new type of medical and health service industry that uses the Internet and information technology to collaborate with traditional healthcare. Its main functions include remote diagnosis, online e-prescription, online medicine purchase, home delivery of medicines, medical condition tracking, patient electronic medical record formation management and disease management, etc. Because the Internet hospital is still in the initial stage of development, many functions are not available, and many relevant regulations are not detailed enough. However, the covid-19 outbreak has to some extent driven the sudden progress of Internet hospitals. This article analyzes the progress and breakthroughs made by Internet hospitals during the outbreak and the development prospects of Internet hospitals in the post-pandemic era in a macroscopic manner through known data and reports. In addition, this article analyzes the problems that Internet hospitals may encounter, and more importantly, this article will suggest corresponding solutions. Ultimately, this article concludes that Internet hospitals have good prospects for development, which will not be possible without technological breakthroughs, government policy support, user perceptions, and Internet hospitals’ innovation.
Since 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 has had a huge impact on the global economy. In fact, as early as the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, it has deeply revealed the complexity of the macroeconomic system, the systemic importance of the financial sector and its high sensitivity to economic exogenous shocks. As an important part of the financial market, bond has a very important impact on the current economic development. Through the study of the current world economy, this paper finds that the epidemic is an unexpected event that changes the world power, the world pattern and the world economic relations, and will bring a profound impact on the world economy. Perhaps the most important change, pre - and post-pandemic, is that the challenges facing humanity will be even greater. The economic growth of developed economies is also unstable due to the impact of the epidemic. The growth of developing countries and emerging economies is more unstable, the risk of inflation and deflation will alternate, and the debt and financial risks are increasing. The risk of supply chain restructuring and supply chain relinking will alternate. A bond market is a place where the government can raise funds in a credit way to balance fiscal revenues and expenditures, which can play a role in promoting economic development. However, the excessive development of the bond market has a negative impact on economic growth and even poses a threat to economic stability. In this regard, this paper puts forward suggestions from the government, enterprise decision-makers and investors to promote the healthy development of the economy.
As one of the most frequently-taken measures to combat the COVID-19 viral spread, the lockdown policy had always been questioned with its impacts on the stock markets and accessibility in the long run. In this paper, I examine the respective stock closing prices of FTSE.GI and 0.000001SH in the UK and China, the countries that had announced lockdown policies several times to find out whether the lockdown restrictions and relaxations negatively affected the investors and their performance in the stock market. By analyzing the stock data with economic theories, it is found that although the markets did show positive returns in the final phases of declarations, they went through low liquidity, high volatility and negative returns for the majority time. Furthermore, the results also suggest that because of the presence of economic inertia and negative investor sentiment, further lockdown had adversely impacted the stock markets, indicating that the alternant lockdown announcements (restriction and relaxation) are not the best long-term solution to COVID from a stock market perspective.
It took only four years for China to transform CBDC research and development into pilot projects. Among the countries engaged in CBDC research, China may have made the fastest progress in CBDC research and development. However, the current research focuses mainly on mechanism and the design of e-cny and its geopolitical implications, and does not answer the question why the people's Bank of China became the first major country to implement CBDC. To answer these questions, this paper analyzes the institutional foundations from a macro strategic perspective that have allowed China and the PBoC to lead the world in testing CBDC. Then this paper analyzes China’s CBDC development process with a focus on the role of China’s financial regulatory institutions and policy innovation. It identifies the key agencies and key decision makers in the process of China’s CDBC research and development process. It also provides a comparative analysis of China’s institutional feature vis-à-vis the United States to further illustrate China’s institutional settings for it to be the first to launch CBDC.
This analysis focuses on the economic theory and the data presented for both economic growth and inequality from 1960 to 2020 in China by examining the influence of economic growth and development on Chinese economic inequality. The purpose of this research is to find the relationship between economic growth and inequality by determining the negative correlation and examining both negative and positive aspects of economic growth and its relationship to living standards.