Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences

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Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-265-7 (Print)

    978-1-83558-266-4 (Online)

    Published Date



    Arman Eshraghi, Cardiff Business School


  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241250

    Analysis and Feasible Solution for Legislative Gaps in Notification Procedures in External Equity Transfer

    In 2005, the Company Law stipulated the transfer of equity for the first time. However, in the subsequent amendments, the notification procedure for external transfer has always been unclear. As a result, there have been disputes about the time and method of the shareholder notification of the transferor in practice. This paper analyzes the disputes in case judgments before and after the entry into force of 2017 judicial interpretation, as well as the characteristics of asset and person compatibility of Limited Liability Company, and tries to find a feasible solution to alleviate the impact of legislative gaps and strengthen notification obligations. Lastly, the paper gives suggestions for improvement in the company’s articles of association and for legislation, which is possible to strike a balance between the trust relationships within companies and the efficiency of business transactions.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241251

    The Impact of Carbon Emission and Carbon Price on International Trade Volume

    In recent years, environmental issues have become an international focus, under the influence of global climate change, greenhouse effect is becoming more severe with each passing day. Therefore, it is urgent to control greenhouse gas emissions and improve the quality of the ecological environment by reducing carbon emissions. However, in the context of the current low-carbon economy, the environmental costs of enterprises are bound to rise, which will inevitably have a more serious impact on enterprises and the national economy. This article will mainly focus on how low carbon economy policies affect a country's international trade over a given period of time based on a concrete example. Regarding the methodology, chose the object to be India's carbon related data which are carbon intensity, carbon emission and carbon price in the period 1990-2020. And mainly based on the regression model using excel. The results of the study show that the Carbon Intensity and Carbon emissions are positively correlated with International Trade while the Carbon Price is negatively correlated. The volume of India’s International Trade will grow steadily as it moves towards Low-Carbon Economy policy. In summary, moving towards low carbon economy can increase the sustainability of international trade and reduce trade risks, while also creating more trade opportunities for countries, especially in the areas of environmental protection.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241253

    The Application of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) in China's Financial Market: An Analysis of Regulatory Impact and International Comparison

    As the world's second largest economy, China is also one of the world's biggest emerging economies. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is one of the most classic pricing models, and China's asset pricing model has gained a lot of experience from it. This research investigates the application of the CAPM in China's financial market, focusing on the influence of financial market regulation and conducting a comparative analysis with international markets. CAPM is a fundamental asset pricing model used to estimate asset expected returns and risks based on their covariance with the overall market portfolio. The study aims to analyze the practical implementation of CAPM in China's financial market, considering the impact of financial market regulation on the model's effectiveness. Key variables such as market data, risk-free rates, and stock returns are utilized, with specific adjustments made to accommodate China's unique regulatory environment. The research's significance lies in providing valuable insights into asset pricing and risk assessment in China's financial market, as well as implications for investors and policymakers. By comparing the results with international markets, this study contributes to a broader understanding of the CAPM model's applicability and effectiveness in diverse regulatory settings.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241254

    Criticism of Multilateral Development Banks’ Operating Reflections During Covid-19 Pandemic - From the Perspective of the Sovereign Debt

    The problem of sovereign debt crises has a long history at the international level, especially in the face of global crises such as the global financial crisis of '08 and the recent COVID-19 pandemic. In the face of the negative social impacts of these emergencies, the state apparatus of each country needs help with relying on domestic channels such as tax revenues and investment returns to maintain efficient operations. It would, therefore, finance other countries in non-domestic currencies, and such a solution would exacerbate countries' sovereign debt crises. Countries have done well in restructuring their sovereign debt in response to sovereign debt crises, especially in Europe and Africa. The International Development Association provided some debt relief to those countries with fragile economies, but the crisis is still present today. In order to expand sustainable financing and maintain economic stability, new multilateral development banks have been established in some regions. These MDBs have been restructuring since the Great Depression, and their lending policies have indeed eased countries' sovereign debt crises to some extent. However, their financing rules have also influenced other countries' policies, making them widely criticised internationally. In the context of COVID-19, both the strengths and weaknesses of MDBs are exposed, so they still have a long way to go before they can become international institutions that can pay attention to disadvantaged countries and help them develop.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241255

    The Heckscher-Ohlin Model in Modern International Trade

    The Heckscher-Ohlin model, initially developed by Elie Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, remains a cornerstone of international economics. This paper evaluates the model's relevance in the context of contemporary global trade dynamics, with a specific focus on how changes in relative factor abundance among countries continue to influence long-term trade patterns. By combining historical perspectives with modern insights, this study seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the model's applicability in today's interconnected world. While empirical research continues to validate its core principles, the study also acknowledges the complexities of real-world trade, including technological advancements, trade policies, and non-homogeneous factors of production. In conclusion, the Heckscher-Ohlin model remains an invaluable tool for understanding international trade, but its effective application requires an integrated approach that considers the multifaceted nature of today's global economy, guiding policymakers and businesses in navigating the evolving landscape of international trade.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241256

    Research on the New Business Trend under the Background of “Double Carbon”

    With the rapid development of the social economy, more and more greenhouse gases are produced due to economic activities, which leads to huge changes in global climate, phenomena like global climate change, climate warming and so on happen frequently. In order to solve these global climate problems, plenty of solutions have been found by experts and government. In the aspect of technology, some clean energy such as electric energy, solar energy and so on are taking the place of the use of fossil fuels which will lead to a lot of greenhouse gas emissions. Besides that, some policies and regulations are also helpful in promoting enterprises' and individuals’ environmental awareness and taking part in emission reduction work. Take carbon emission as an example, as a policy-based emission reduction tool, it uses the market economy to raise the cost of greenhouse gas emissions, which will improve the bad trend of atmospheric environment resources. In order to achieve the goal of energy saving, emission reduction and environmental production, the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol is an important turning point for global control of greenhouse gas emissions. And the truth is, with the rapid development in developing countries, there are more and more greenhouse gases discharged by them.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241258

    Analysis of U.S. and Hong Kong Cryptocurrency Regulation Approach

    Cryptocurrencies have been defined and regulated differently in all corners of society. Much research has been made on countries' institutional measures to consummate regulations toward cryptocurrencies further. This paper explores the definition and nature of cryptocurrencies through a literature review method. The nature of cryptocurrencies has directly led to their benefits and misuse. This paper also explores the regulatory measures made by the U.S. and the flaws revealed in the Coinbase Case and Ripple Case. The ambiguous definition between regulatory departments and overlapping law enforcement power has made investors not knowing what course to take. New measures are taken in Hong Kong through a compulsory licensing system and laying major responsibility on platform service providers. This paper examines the new efforts and proposes some potential flaws under the new regulatory system. The Hong Kong regulatory approach is believed to provide insight and reference for other markets that would like to include cryptocurrencies into regulation.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241260

    Research on NVIDIA's Success and Socioeconomic Perspective

    As the world's leading semiconductor company, NVIDIA continues to expand its marketing power through technological innovation, while its products also provide directions and tools for global social and economic development. This article explores the reasons for NVIDIA's success as a leader in the semiconductor industry and its impact on the socio-economic system from a socio-economic perspective. This article analyzes NVIDIA's characteristics in technological innovation, market orientation, sustainable development, social responsibility, etc. from a socio-economic perspective, and demonstrates the reasons for NVIDIA's success. Discuss NVIDIA's positive impact on the social economy from the aspects of innovation, employment, and sustainable development. In addition, as a technology company, NVIDIA faces challenges related to technological innovation and market risks. In response to the expected risks and challenges, NVIDIA needs to continuously complete self-innovation and optimization. While flexibly responding to market changes, it needs to adjust its operating strategy and business model according to the current situation of the market.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241263

    What is the Impact of Fiscal Technology Expenditure on Carbon Emission Reduction? Evidence from Guangdong Province in China

    China has put forward the strategic goal of striving to achieve peak carbon by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, and reducing carbon emission intensity is a top priority. This paper analyses the impact of local government fiscal science and technology expenditures on carbon emission intensity based on a fixed panel regression model using panel data of 21 cities in Guangdong Province from 2000 to 2019, and draws the following main conclusions: (1) Higher fiscal science and technology expenditures significantly promote the reduction of carbon emission intensity. Specifically, for every 1% increase in expenditures, the carbon emission intensity decreases by 0.221%; (2) The mechanism includes promoting the level of green innovation and promoting the level of new and high technology. Therefore, local governments should pay attention to the role of environment-friendly science and technology innovation on low-carbon development, help glow-carbon research and application transformation, strengthen the regulation of heavy polluting enterprises, and guide the capital to green industries, so as to embark a new road of high-quality economic development and carbon reduction.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241264

    Does ESG Affect Bank Lending to Companies?

    with the serious intensification of global warming in recent years, countries around the world are actively developing carbon neutrality, carbon peaking, and reducing carbon emissions to ensure a healthier operation of the earth. To cooperate with the low-carbon policies of various countries, companies have also begun to implement policies to reduce carbon emissions and save energy, so ESG has gradually become a hot topic. ESG indicators are also becoming increasingly important in the financial industry. This research is a review essay. The research direction is to explore whether ESG indicators will affect corporate credit in banks by studying the policies and various data on carbon emissions that have been released by countries and by reading published papers. Through research on government policies and current thesis research, it is shown that there are currently no clear policies or rules stipulating how ESG indicators will affect corporate credit in banks, but the current banking industry will indeed pay more attention to ESG performance of companies when leading to companies, good ESG indicators will lead to better bank credit and lower cost of banking credit.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241265

    The Impact of ESG Disclosure on the Corporate Value of Automobile Industry: Evidence from China

    From the ESG ratings information on A-share listed automotive businesses published from 2018 to 2022, regression analyses using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method were carried out for this company. The study explores how ESG disclosure affects business value in the car sector and experimentally examines the regression model. The study's conclusions show a strong positive influence between ESG disclosure and the worth of enterprises in the automotive sector. Therefore, the financial investment market supports companies with more ESG disclosure more strongly than those with lesser transparency. Through the correlation analysis, it is found that financial leverage and ESG are in negative influence, companies with more financial leverage will use their debt capital more frequently, and they can use lower costs to obtain funds for financial investment and ESG activities, which will increase the return on investment. However, businesses in poor financial condition do not have extra funds to care about ESG related operations. The body of information on ESG in the automobile industry is enriched by this study. It also discusses the effect of business profitability on ESG activities.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241266

    Promoting Green Energy Vehicle: A Global Warming Solution

    Given the escalating concerns surrounding global warming, nations worldwide are confronted with the urgent need to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning to energy-efficient vehicles has emerged as a promising solution to mitigate environmental harm. This paper aims to delve into the present-day dynamics and incentives associated with these eco-friendly vehicles. Specifically, it scrutinizes governmental incentives that promote their acquisition, corporate ingenuity in their manufacturing and distribution, consumer allure factors, and the media’s role in portraying both traditional auto industry constraints and affirmative narratives about these sustainable vehicles. Furthermore, the analysis sheds light on predicaments tied to energy vehicles, such as challenges in electricity infrastructure and potential overuse. Findings reveal that prevailing policies across nations remain imperfect, with some strategies focusing on bolstering the effectiveness of green vehicle directives while others are tailored to stimulate consumer buying tendencies. To secure a sustainable vehicular future, an integrated effort among governmental agencies, media outlets, and businesses is paramount.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241269

    Research on the Development of Green Finance Policies in China -Based on Policy Data from Beijing

    With environmental problems being severer these years, developed countries first started to find out possible solutions. In 2015, after thousands of tries from various aspects, United Nations Climate Change Conference proposed The Paris Agreement in which governments started to pay great attention to the concept of green finance. China has shown her determination in process of green finance development and released wide-ranged green finance policies for different areas. In 2016, the Chinese government proposed Guiding Opinions on Building Green Financial System in which made a comprehensive and detailed plan for green finance developing. Provinces and cities followed the step of central government and issued relative policies in recent years. This article based on green finance policies in Beijing and analyzed the components and tendency of policies. It is apparent that the proportions and tendencies of various policies approximately fit the proportions and development of different financial instruments. While there exists disproportion in existing green finance system in China. Green credit accounts for the largest part and is advanced even comparing with developed countries. Green fund and green insurance are relatively underdeveloped and deserved to be improved in future. The Chinese government should consider new methods and implement instruments to deal with the recent recession and worldwide financial shocks. Comprehensive green finance policy system is decisive and plenty of foreign new financial products should be imported.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241270

    Carbon Risk Assessment in Investing Decision-Making: The Role of Carbon Pricing Policies

    This study looks thoroughly into the important relationship between carbon risk assessment and investment decision-making, with a specific emphasis on the consequences of various carbon pricing regimes. Understanding how carbon risk and pricing regulations effect investment portfolios is critical in today’s world, when environmental sustainability and battling climate change are vital. To clarify the topic, the study conducts a thorough assessment of current research, evaluating the several ways in which carbon price influences investment decisions. It also offers light on carbon risk measurement approaches and frameworks, providing critical insights into the complexity of environmental economics. Furthermore, the paper adds empirical case studies to its narrative, offering real-world context to theoretical frameworks and shining light on the actual implications of carbon risks and price on investment strategies. The findings are useful for investors, policymakers, and scholars attempting to navigate the complex environment of sustainable investing in a carbon-constrained society.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241271

    Impact of Work from Home on Employee Work and Life

    Work from Home has become an increasingly common working mode in the modern working environment. The COVID-19 pandemic moved a significant shift to working from home (WFH), and it has become the only option for many industries to keep their business running. This sudden shift makes us wonder whether home working is a positive or negative change. However, many studies have analyzed the economic benefits and productivity impacts of telecommuting. There is still a limited exploration of how it affects employees' quality of life, work-life balance, family relationships, and mental health. The research aims to examine the impact of home from work on employees' quality of life and its acceptance. First, I explored employees' acceptance of telecommuting and its possible implications for work-personal life balance. Then, I examined whether prolonged time spent with family in a home-based work environment strengthened parent-child and couple bonds or increased relationship friction and tension. Ultimately, this study assessed home-based work's positive and negative effects on employee mental health and identified key factors that may increase or decrease psychological stress. While the economic and productivity benefits of telecommuting have received extensive research attention, there is a gap in how it affects employee quality of life. This research provides novel and in-depth analyses in this area. It suggests strategies for companies, policymakers, and other stakeholders to meet employees' needs better and, in turn, enhance their job satisfaction and productivity. Given that home-based work is becoming an ongoing work pattern, a deeper understanding of its long-term impact on employees' quality of life will provide valuable insights for society to help them adapt more smoothly to this work pattern.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241275

    The Positive Reinforcement of New Energy Vehicles on the Overall Automobile Market

    New energy vehicles (NEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), have gained significant traction in recent years both in China and globally due to heightened environmental awareness, government support, and technological innovations. While some studies suggest that the rise of NEVs has led to a decline in traditional fuel vehicle (TFVs) sales, particularly in developed countries with high EV adoption rates, others argue that the NEV market's growth has spurred innovation throughout the entire automobile industry, which would have a positive impact on the entire automobile market. This paper delves into the intricate relationship between NEVs and the traditional automobile market, concentrating on whether the surge in NEVs causes crowding-out effects or fosters positive reinforcement. Our data analysis supports the latter notion, revealing that NEVs have not supplanted TFVs but have, in fact, energized the entire automotive sector. Drawing insights from existing literature, this paper analyses the key drivers behind this positive reinforcement, emphasizing the role of government policies, consumer behaviour, and industry innovations in shaping this dynamic.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241276

    Analysis of the Marketing Strategy of China's Film and Television Industry Based on the Background of Media Convergence -- Taking the Film "Wandering the Earth" as an Example

    With the continuous development of media convergence, the marketing strategy of China's film and television industry has been constantly enriched, and the marketing and media of the film and television industry have entered an era of deep integration. Media convergence has brought the expansion of communication platform and the innovation of content for the marketing of film and television industry. The film "wandering the earth" has been a great success in the Chinese film market. The publicity team behind it integrates media resources, disseminates high-quality content and makes important contributions to the film box office. Taking "wandering the earth" as an example, this paper uses the theoretical model of integrated marketing strategy to explore the marketing strategy of China's film and television industry under the background of media convergence from four deeper perspectives: content marketing, integrated communication channels, interactive marketing and the development of IP system. Finally, the article combines the existing strategies with future development, and puts forward the problems that need to be improved.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241280

    Disney’s Management Insights from Michael Eisner

    Disney has always held a prominent position in the entertainment and movie industry, boasting a rich history of development. The success of this company can be attributed not only to its creative films and cartoons but also to the exceptional management strategies employed by its managers. The strategies and style of management play pivotal roles in Disney's accomplishments. Michael Eisner, as a Disney CEO, has been a subject of controversy among the general public. While some view him as the savior of Disney and its greatest manager, others contend that he tarnished the brand's reputation. This study aims to conduct an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the key management strategies employed by Disney's CEOs, with a focus on Michael Eisner. Through the collection, compilation, and qualitative analysis of data and information gathered from various sources on the internet, this paper endeavors to explore both the achievements and failures of Michael Eisner's approach to business management. It becomes evident that Eisner played a role in revitalizing Disney, but his mismanagement also gave rise to several subsequent problems.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241283

    A Preliminary Study Outlining the Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Expatriates in Their International Assignments: Case of UK Expatriates in China’s Fashion Sector

    This research proposal tries to conduct a preliminary study about investigating the factors influencing the effectiveness of UK expatriates in China's fashion sector focusing on individual, social, and organisational factors. This research proposal aims to build up a research project for a PhD level work, and it will act as an research guide and outline. By using this preliminary study, it will provide the later project some academic foundations and evaluates its research potential. It is through this preliminary study that some academic value of the project is presented, which are as follows. To be specific, the later project will addresses a significant gap in the literature by examining the impact of individual factors, such as self-efficacy, prior international experience, and spousal adaptation, on expatriate performance. The later project also explores social-cultural factors, including social networking and cultural differences, as well as organisational factors such as support and training. Key trends in expatriation to China's luxury fashion sector are analyzed, highlighting the growing presence of Western expatriates in key cities like Beijing and Shanghai. The project will employ an interpretivism philosophy and an inductive research approach, utilizing a case study strategy based on UK expatriates working in Burberry's Beijing offices. Data will be collected through online interviews with sample of five expatriates, and thematic analysis is applied to identify key themes and insights. The findings of this project contribute to a deeper understanding of the dynamics affecting expatriate performance and offer valuable insights for both managers and policymakers. The project suggests that enhancing self-efficacy, providing effective training and support, addressing spousal adaptation issues, and fostering social networking are critical for improving the effectiveness of expatriates in China's luxury fashion sector.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-01-05 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/67/20241285

    The Impact of European Union Policies on Urban Development: A Case Study of Liverpool

    This study delves into the history of urban development in Liverpool and the contemporary challenges it faces, examining the impact of European Union (EU) policies on its urban planning. It primarily focuses on employment opportunities and green policies, including transportation, clean energy, and biodiversity conservation. The research underscores the significant influence of the EU, mainly through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), in shaping Liverpool's development projects, enhancing spatial planning, and addressing urban issues. Recommendations for Liverpool City Council (LCC) include continued support for employment, especially among the diverse urban population, and exploring opportunities through development projects. The study emphasizes the need for LCC to align with EU policy directions, particularly in the context of the European Green Deal (EGD), to effectively address climate change sustainably. Post-Brexit, LCC should establish a committee to uphold and adapt EU policies to local needs, ultimately promoting Liverpool's resilience and sustainable urban development.

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