Advances in Economics, Management and Political Sciences

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

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Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies

    Conference Date






    978-1-83558-377-7 (Print)

    978-1-83558-378-4 (Online)

    Published Date



    Arman Eshraghi, Cardiff Business School


  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241821

    The Impact of Digital Transformation in the Sports Industry

    This paper explores the impact of digital transformation on the sports industry. It begins with an analysis of the current state of the traditional sports industry and then advance to its foundational role in the development and adaptation of technological innovations to modern sports. This article discusses how three different sports organizations have successfully engaged in digital technology integration and digital transformation, citing the cases of Liverpool Football Club, ESPN, and the NBA as three outstanding sports organizations, including changes that have occurred in operating models, revenue streams, and fan interactions. The study also covers the barriers and difficulties faced by sports organizations in digital transformation as well as the strategies and methods needed to cope with it, such as adapting to traditional models, investing in technology, and changing the culture of the company. In addition, this paper focuses on the long-term impact of digital transformation in the sports industry, which has changed the traditional business models and revenue streams of the sports industry, increasing the user experience, but also preserving the spirit and values of traditional sports. This paper expresses deep insights into the modern development of digital transformation and the integration of tradition, and looks forward to the future development path of the sports industry.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241586

    Analysis of Macro-economic Operation Situation and Fiscal and Tax Policy Orientation in the Post-epidemic Era

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound and lasting impact on the global economy and society. With the epidemic gradually under control, the international community has entered the post-epidemic era, and countries have begun to adjust the fiscal and monetary policies implemented since the spread of the epidemic to deal with the "side effects" caused by economic policies on society. In the post-epidemic era, China has entered a new stage of high-quality development, and the economy is basically improving. While adhering to the general direction of supply-side structural reform, the government has actively adjusted fiscal and monetary policies to stimulate the growth of effective demand. In response to the prominent contradictions in China's economic environment after the epidemic, the central government has introduced targeted policies and made structural adjustments to help orderly recovery and coordinated development of various industries. Through policy efforts to reduce the cost of input factors, improve production efficiency, encourage the cultivation of enterprise innovation ability, so as to integrate the advantageous resources of all walks of life, effectively improve the core competitiveness of products and services in the market. Looking forward to the future, China's institutional advantages are significant, the economy is large, the industrial system is complete, the market size is broad, the ability to resist risks is strong, economic development has huge potential, room for resilience.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241352

    Titans of the Digital Age: A Profitability Analysis of Leading Search Engines and Internet Commerce Companies

    This paper aims to conduct a comprehensive financial analysis of two distinct groups of companies in the technology sector: Internet Commerce and Search Engines. The companies under study include Amazon (AMZN) and Ali Baba (BABA) from the nternet commerce industry, and Alphabet (GOOG) and Baidu (BIDU) from the search engines industry. Utilizing data sourced exclusively from Yahoo Finance's 'Financial' tab, the study focuses on the company’s performance over a four-year period from 2019 to 2022. Four key financial metrics are examined: Annual Return, EBIT/Total Revenue, Earnings Per Share (EPS), and the correlation between Annual Return and EBIT/Total Revenue. The findings are visualized through plots to facilitate a better understanding of the financial performance and interrelationships among these metrics for the companies in question. This comprehensive analysis provides a snapshot of these tech titans' immediate financial health and profitability. It emphasizes their intricate interplay with broader market dynamics, regulatory nuances, and overarching macroeconomic forces.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241768

    Apple’s Marketing Strategy in China and Its Enlightenment to the Electronic Industry

    In recent years, the electronic market in China has gone through a process of rapid development and recession. However, while many manufacturers are shutting down, Apple company from America is growing fast. Since its official entry into the Chinese market, Apple has been continuously bought by Chinese consumers. Achieving such a result is not only related to the quality, technology, innovation and users’ experiences of their products, but also closely related to Apple’s innovative marketing strategies. This paper mainly analyzes Apple's marketing strategy in China and its implications for the electronics industry by using the method of literature analysis and review. The purpose of it is to analyze the development status of China’s electronic industry and the development prospects of Apple. Related papers published by predecessors would be used to help understand the changing strategies and the connection between them and the whole electronic industry. In addition, data and figures would also be used to support the result. According to the findings, it is clear that Apple’s marketing strategies are methodical and manageable although they do have some problems.. In view of these problems, this paper puts forward some suggestions on accelerating technological innovation and perfecting the systems.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241776

    Analysis of Key Economic Factors in Consumer Behavior and Purchase Decisions in Online Markets

    This paper will explore the multifaceted relationship between economic factors, consumer behavior, and purchase decisions in the online consumer market. This research paper will look at key economic factors such as demand elasticity, consumer spending, availability of alternatives, consumer confidence, and market competition, aiming to reveal the differentiated decisions that influence consumer behavior and purchasing decisions. The report will combine case study methods and methodological approaches to analyze the dynamic and complex consumer market effectively. Economic factors play a crucial role in influencing consumer behavior and purchasing decisions. This study will examine and intensely discuss the interaction between economic factors and online consumer behavior. The research results of this project will provide a reference for the development of enterprises related to online consumer behavior and purchase decisions, further understand, enrich, and develop the key economic factors in the online consumer market, and reveal the intricate relationship between the differentiation of consumer behavior and the complexity of purchase decision. The research process and results will have significant implications for the understanding and adaptation of policymaking in online markets.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241786

    Research on Optimal Portfolio Based on the Markowitz Model

    This paper studies the Markowitz investment theory model. The study examined a portfolio of three companies - the Coca-Cola Company, McDonald’s Corporation, and Apple Inc. This paper calculates the expected returns and the standard deviations of the Coca-Cola Company, McDonald’s Corporation, and Apple Inc., respectively. In this paper, the expected return is used to measure the value of securities, and the standard deviation is used to measure the risk of securities, studying the development of three companies’ stocks. At the same time, the relationship between the Coca-Cola Company, McDonald’s Corporation, and Apple Inc. is discussed using covariance and correlation coefficient. Next, using the Markowitz investment theory model, one can draw the effective frontier of the investment portfolio and prove that all of the risk-return portfolios on the efficient frontier are the portfolios that can get the highest return with the fixed risk. Then, combining the efficient frontier and indifference curve, simulate a rational investor with a special risk appetite and a special expected return, verify the tangential point of the indifference curve, and this tangential point is the optimal proportional portfolio for this specific rational investor of these securities.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241799

    Correlation Analysis Between Regional Economic Development Level and Residents' Quality of Life: A Case Study Based on Economic Data

    The global development imbalance and the varying distribution of development priorities among countries have led to significant disparities in economic levels and standards of living. Different regions and countries exhibit contrasting economic profiles, resulting in varying living standards for their populations. These economic disparities exert a tangible influence on people’s lives, with changes in the economy directly impacting their daily experiences. This paper adopts a case study method, utilizing data on variables such as GDP, employment rates, average property prices, and per capita car ownership, to examine the manifestation of living standards disparities resulting from economic gaps across different regions and countries. The findings emphasize the crucial role of a stable and growing economy as a prerequisite for enhancing people’s living standards, as the economy serves as a tangible reflection of their quality of life. Understanding the causes and theoretical relationship between the economy and its impact on people’s lives is of paramount importance. In conclusion, this paper illustrates that economic disparities between regions and countries significantly affect people’s living standards and underscores the significance of economic stability and growth in improving people’s well-being. The economy and people’s lives are intertwined, exerting reciprocal effects on each other while also imposing mutual constraints.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241802

    Influential Factors on California Regional Housing Price Analysed by Multiple Linear Regression

    While metropolises keep expanding with the increasing population in recent decades, the need for housing rises inevitably. This paper aims to find the most explanatory factors for the housing price in California; with 20433 entries of data found in Kaggle, the method of multiple linear regression (MLR) is applied to find the most influential factors. 500 entries in the dataset are chosen randomly and are divided into 2 datasets for training and testing purposes. Models have been developed in R by using the training dataset. After comparing the adjusted R square and variability of the models, the most convincible model will be selected to find out the result of this investigation on the test dataset. After model diagnostics, the result of this analysis is that the regional median income level has a strong positive correlation with the housing price, and it is the most influential factor. Other influential factors will be introduced in the conclusion.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241568

    Analysis of the Impact of China's Monetary Policy on the Real Estate Market in the Post-epidemic Era

    Monetary policy is an effective measure for the government to intervene in the real estate market. The ups and downs of China's real estate market in recent decades cannot be separated from the influence of monetary policy. After COVID-19 ended, the country's focus returned to economic reconstruction, and the real estate industry, as one of the pillar industries of the national economy, has attracted more attention from policymakers. Various policy combinations for the real estate industry, including monetary policy, have been introduced, and have achieved some results so far, but the final effect remains to be seen. This paper examines the effects of various national monetary policies on China's real estate market. A series of latest real estate policies have been implemented, both sides of supply and demand are expected to reverse, and the real estate market can be improved. In the medium and long term, the improvement demand has a broad prospect, and there is still a large room for development in the future. The study of real estate policy theory is of great significance to the sustained and healthy development of real estate enterprises and also plays an important role in China's economic construction and development. Real estate enterprises need to deeply understand the policy, and make scientific and reasonable planning, to promote the stable and sustainable development of real estate enterprises.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241574

    Research of Financing Opportunities from the ESG Policy for Chinese Enterprises

    In the 1960s and 1970s, with the rise of human rights movements in Western countries, public environmental movements, and anti-apartheid movements, the asset management industry began to produce corresponding investment concepts; that is, it began to emphasize labor rights, racial and gender equality, business ethics, environmental protection, and other issues in investment choices. In the 1990s, socially responsible investment began to shift from the moral level to the investment strategy level. In the investment decision, the ESG performance of the company was comprehensively considered, and the impact of the ESG investment strategy on investment risk and investment return was measured. This marks the formation of the ESG investment philosophy. In the 21st century, the ESG investment concept has been further developed and promoted. The UN Principles for Responsible Investment (UN-PRI) aims to make ESG an important part of its global investment strategy. This initiative has made environmental, social, and governance factors important indicators of sustainable development. This research is based on the global ESG-developing environment. This research discussed why Chinese enterprises can get a good financing opportunity by using ESG policy as an enterprise development strategy. This research finds out the situation of ESG in the world and what made Chinese enterprises get a good financing opportunity by using literature research and data analysis. the scale of Chinese ESG will gradually catch up with the world in the future. Chinese enterprises can get better opportunities to go abroad, further achieve better development, and obtain better ESG performance and social capital. This paper provides feasible suggestions for the realization of the strategic development of Chinese enterprises to keep pace with the times.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241577

    Implementation Effect of the Company's Equity Incentive Plan: Evidence from Youyou Food

    As a matter of fact, regarding as an effective way to attract and retain talents, equity incentives were first implemented by high-tech enterprises in the United States. The purpose of this study is to deeply explore the implementation effect of the company's equity incentive plan. With this in mind, this paper takes Youyou Food Company as a case for analysis. By comparing the situation before and after the implementation of the equity incentive plan of Youyou Food Company, the effect of its equity incentive in three aspects (i.e., profitability, development ability and debt repayment ability) was analyzed. According to the analysis, the effect of Youyou Food's implementation of equity incentives did not reach the expected rate of return, which may be due to the economic downturn in the general environment eating up the benefits of equity incentives. At the same time, the problems as well as suggestions are proposed based on the analysis.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241583

    Financial Analysis and Valuation of Texas Instruments

    This paper conducts an in-depth analysis of Texas Instruments' recent performance in the semiconductor industry, positioning it as a standout performer against competitors like Intel Corporation, Advanced Micro Devices, Broadcom, and Qualcomm. The study emphasizes Texas Instruments' comprehensive understanding of chip manufacturing, encompassing an examination of the industry's current landscape, recent company events, and interpretations of annual report statements. Financial statement comparisons are employed to calculate critical metrics such as liquidity ratio, solvency ratio, profitability ratio, investment ratio, and P/E ratio. Beyond quantitative metrics, the analysis extends to a thorough exploration of risk factors, spanning from internal intricacies to broader industry trends. These risk factors are systematically detailed, providing investors with a nuanced perspective for informed decision-making. The paper culminates in offering concrete and strategic investment suggestions based on the amalgamation of quantitative data and qualitative insights. This holistic approach equips stakeholders with a comprehensive understanding of Texas Instruments' standing in the semiconductor market, facilitating well-informed investment decisions in the dynamic and competitive industry landscape.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241812

    Research on Anti-Corruption in Overseas Investment of Chinese Multinational Enterprises

    Since the proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative, China has consistently adhered to the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits. It has actively promoted projects aimed at improving people's livelihoods and garnering public support. These efforts have provided significant support and impetus for global economy development. From the perspective of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs), analyzing the reasons for corruption in developing countries along the Belt and Road and examining the adverse impact of corruption on MNEs’ investments. Furthermore, it seeks to review and study the corruption problems and risks that Chinese MNEs should be mindful of during outbound direct investment. Based on these findings, suggestions will be put forward regarding the adoption of a risk early warning and response mechanism by Chinese MNEs when investing abroad, as well as measures to enhance the internal anti-corruption mechanisms of MNEs. The objective is to provide recommendations for optimizing the internal and external investment environment for Chinese MNEs.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241813

    Restriction on Foreigners’ Employment Violates the Principles of Equality and Non-discrimination ——From the Perspective of Thailand Foreigners’ Working Management Emergency Decree

    Thailand Foreigners’ Working Management Emergency Decree has stipulated 27 occupations prohibited for foreign workers, substantially differentiating Thai national workers from non-Thai national workers. Restriction on foreigners’ employment not only infringes on the non-Thai workers’ right to choose their employment freely but also violates human rights centered on the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Since employment discrimination has been regulated in relevant international treaties, basic methods for judging discrimination issues are gradually derived. Besides, the research on the Proportionality Principles has continued to deepen in practical and theoretical fields. By combining the Proportionality Principles with the method of judging discrimination in national law, the legitimacy and rationality of legislation can be quantitatively determined. Based on this, it is found that although Thailand’s decree restricting the employment of alien workers is stipulated to protect the employment of Thai nationals, its differential regulation ignores the sub-principle of “necessity of means” in Proportionality Principles. Hence, Thailand’s decree lacks objectivity and rationality, violating the principles of equality and non-discrimination under international law.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241638

    Financial Analysis and Valuation on Dollar Tree

    This paper analyzes the American leading retailer company Dollar Tree in the role of its overall recent investment value. In illustrating the company’s change of financial operation plans and profit projections in response to the alternation of the market, this study evaluates accounting analysis, performance, and strategic modules. Its recognition of revenue, lease accounting, goodwill, liquidity, solvency, profitability, investment, and risks incorporated with data calculated from official annual reports in comparison to its several peers as well as competitor companies in the same retail industry are demonstrated to argue for the accessible marketing investment and economic nature of Dollar Tree in detail. By specifying the data, the study provides a comprehensive resolution for strength and opportunity reasons to Dollar Tree’s sustainable growth from past to current and future investing feasibilities out of its weaknesses and risks. In conclusion, this research furnishes valuable insights into Dollar Tree's financial landscape, offering a robust foundation for informed decision-making and strategic planning in the dynamic retail market.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241594

    The Impact of Interest Rate Hikes on the Capital Markets

    As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread globally, the economic situation of countries has captured significant attention. The resulting inflation has prompted countries to implement monetary policies to stabilize economic activity. As the leading economic power in the world, the United States has a significant influence on the global economy. This study aims to analyze the interest rate hike policy implemented by the United States, its plan and purpose, and its social impacts. Comparative analysis is used to examine the interest rate policies of China and the European Union, two significant trade partners with which the United States has a positive commercial relationship. Also, this paper further analyzes the domestic effects of the trading partners of the interest rate policy. It is found that both the US and the EU have also implemented the policy of interest rate hikes, whereas China has implemented the policy of interest rate cut. The different policy decisions are related to the extent of economic recovery after the pandemic, the political context, and the cultural background of each country.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241595

    Research on Risk Management of Financial Derivatives in Chinese Commercial Banks

    Financial derivatives play an important role in modern financial markets, and they are widely used in a variety of financial activities, including risk management, investment, and asset pricing. However, with the continuous expansion and increasing complexity of the financial derivatives market, the associated risks are increasing, especially for financial institutions such as Chinese commercial banks. Therefore, the study of risk management in this area has become crucial since it involves the stability of the financial system as well as the security of the national economy. This paper examines the risk management of financial derivatives in Chinese commercial banks and concludes that there are legal, operational, liquidity, credit, and market risks associated with financial derivatives in commercial banks. In order to avoid these risks, Chinese commercial banks should reasonably and clearly limit the authority of traders and establish an effective constraint mechanism. At the same time, a system should be developed to disclose risk information on a large scale, thereby further enhancing the credit monitoring of the financial market and continuously improving the laws and regulations in favor of management.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241819

    The Impact of Individual Investors' Self-Learning on Herd Bias in the Chinese Stock Market

    In behavioral finance, herd bias refers to investors' rational or illogical responses to the market. The irrational approach emphasizes the psychological side of investors, implying that they may ignore an individual's pre-existing ideas and blindly follow the decisions made by other investors. Herd prejudice is common among all sorts of investors, but it tends to lessen over time in the Chinese stock market. The purpose of this study is to see if self-learning among individual investors reduces herd prejudice in the market, as well as to look at the elements that influence self-learning. Data was gathered by sending questionnaires to investors with accounts on the Chinese stock exchange. A partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis revealed that self-learning had a detrimental effect on herd bias. The most important aspect of self-learning is a desire to learn. Interactions with peers and a desire to learn encourage self-learning among investors; however, interactions with investment advisors have no meaningful effect. The impact of investor-peer interactions on self-learning and herd bias lessens as traders acquire experience and investors become more self-aware. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the reasons for the reduction in herd prejudice in the Chinese stock market. It contains useful references for the scientific creation of investing plans.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241603

    The Interaction Between Greenwashing and Chinese ESG Investors: Analyzing from the Perspectives of Credibility and Investment Decision-making

    Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing involves considering environmental, social, and governance factors to make socially responsible investment decisions that align with ethical and sustainable values. The widespread adoption of ESG has stimulated academic research in this field, primarily focusing on North America and Europe. However, in the current development of ESG investment in China, "greenwashing" has attracted widespread attention and awaits effective resolution. Greenwashing is the deceptive practice of conveying a false impression or exaggerating a company's commitment to environmental and social responsibility to appear more environmentally friendly than it is. Therefore, this study employs a literature analysis approach to study the interaction between greenwashing and Chinese ESG investors. The primary finding indicates that diverse forms of greenwashing by companies can influence investors' decisions and ESG ratings. This study outlines three key resolution strategies: centralized environmental monitoring policies, companies streamlining management and financial costs, and institutional investors conducting on-site inspections.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2754-1169/77/20241606

    Research on the Impact of R&D Investment on Business Performance of Electronic Digital Company - A Case Study of Xiaomi Corporation

    As the main means of innovation, research and development investment plays a very important role in the long-term development of digital product manufacturing enterprises. Xiaomi is a well-known listed company in China, renowned for its strong research and development capabilities and technological innovation. This paper aims to deeply explore the relationship between research and development investment and the business performance of Xiaomi after going public, providing useful insights on research and development strategies for investors, management, and policy makers. By selecting the data from Xiaomi’s official website with regression analysis to get the far-reaching impact of research and development (R&D) investment on performance and its important manifestation in performance evaluation system, concretely use ANOVA for revenue and R&D expense, gross profit and R&D expense and market share and R&D expense. The following conclusions can be drawn from analyzing relevant data: the effectiveness of R&D investment on Xiaomi's performance appears mixed, with significant benefits for gross profit but unclear effects on revenue growth and market share.

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