Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies
Arman Eshraghi, Cardiff Business School
Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) serve as a crucial pathway for the international development of high-tech enterprises. However, currency exchange and foreign exchange transactions are frequent occurrences during cross-border M&A processes, making exchange rate fluctuations significantly influential on the success rate and performance of such endeavors. By analyzing the impact of exchange rate volatility on high-tech enterprises, this study introduces innovation input as a moderating mediating variable. The findings reveal that greater exchange rate fluctuations lead to poorer M&A performance. Moreover, innovation input acts as a mediating variable in the relationship between exchange rate volatility and M&A performance. The study contributes to strategic insights for the international M&A activities of enterprises.
The gender wage gap is a critical measurement of gender equality in the labor market. On the demand side in the labor market, gender differences in labor pricing can shape the household decision regarding intra-household resource allocation. Understanding how labor pricing, namely wages, affects the resources allocated to women is important to improve women’s welfare in developing countries. Previous research focuses on the effects of gender norms in China, such as son preferences, on intra-household resource allocation. This paper examines how the gender wage gap affects the resources allocated to women within the household. To capture the wage shock in the labor market, I construct the gender- specific Bartik variables. The results indicate that the increases in female-to-male wages between couples improve women’s nutrition intake. This work serves to inform about improving women’s welfare in the family and labor market.
Compared with relying solely on unfair competition or trademark infringement to maintain brand rights, trademark registration has obvious advantages. It provides statutory protection, ensuring that the rights of trademark owners are guaranteed by law. This registration also grants the exclusive right to use the mark, preventing others from using similar marks that may cause confusion. One of its most important benefits is the presumption of validity in court, thereby putting the onus on the challenger to prove otherwise. Once a trademark is registered, it is protected nationwide, regardless of where it is first used. In the event of infringement, a registered trademark can secure greater damages, potentially deterring illegal use. The enforcement procedure for registered trademarks is more streamlined, which facilitates faster resolution of issues. Registration can be a springboard for international expansion, allowing businesses to register trademarks in other countries more seamlessly. Essentially, for businesses keen to maintain their brand reputation and image, trademark registration is a better choice due to its comprehensive advantages.
Nowadays, social media plays a decisive role in the development of brands, as it betokens a disruptive change in the way people communicate with each other. Surrounded by global competition in the marketplace, how can brands utilize social media to innovate and gain consumer trust matters a lot. This paper explores several ways to help build brand loyalty based on promotion and replication of certain previous research. In particular, how to find product position in era of homogenization of information and improve its position. problems and propose improvement plans according to the receipt received. Through scientific tracing to the source in the successful case to find the feasibility of strategies. This paper finds that although the effects of social media seem to be objective, they can be subjective in consideration of brand experience, need for uniqueness, and even propaganda of core values for brands. In other words, the market does have the capacity to adjust its strategy to bring economic profits for the company in the long run.
As the most intuitive economic indicator reflecting the economic development level of a company, an industry, or even a country, the fluctuation of stock prices will attract great attention. In order to avoid the loss of investors to a certain extent, stock price prediction is widely used in the stock market to prevent risks to a certain extent, and the ARIMA model is a time series prediction model that has been widely used in recent years. Therefore, the application of the ARIMA model to stock price forecasting is the main research object of this paper. This paper speculated at the beginning of the study that there may be a close relationship between the degree of fit of the ARIMA model and the consistency of the prediction results with the original data used. However, the existing literature is basically blank in this aspect of research and analysis. Therefore, this paper chooses to conduct comparative experiments on a set of continuous data and a set of discontinuous data to analyze the influence of the consistency of the original data under application conditions on the ARIMA model fitting and prediction results, hoping to fill the gaps in the existing literature through this research. The experimental results show that in some cases of original data with obvious discontinuous data missing, its smoothness is extremely poor, resulting in a poor fitting effect of the ARIMA model, and it can not be applied to the prediction of such data.
The Chinese economy has grown dramatically over the past few decades. China's economic rise is particularly intriguing because it defies conventional economic models and has been driven by unique policies and dynamics. Nevertheless, in a world characterized by increasing protectionism, international trade tensions, and changes in investor sentiment, the sustainability of China's economic growth model has come into question. Chinese policymakers should navigate these shifts as investors reconsider their positions and countries protect their domestic industries. This paper investigates the policy dynamics that have contributed to the rapid economic growth in China. It also describes the various economic models that can describe the Chinese economic model. The paper reveals s that consumption, investments, and exports are the major drivers of economic growth in China. Consumption in retail sales is robust and is projected to keep increasing yearly into the future. Keynesian theory asserts that aggregate demand is the most important driving force in an economy. As such, the aggregate demand for consumer goods by government, businesses, and households is high in China. Investments are also a major driver in creating gross fixed capital. Investments from a neoclassical perspective show that investors are concerned with maximizing The conclusion shows that in a world where countries are increasingly protective of domestic industries and also where investors are withdrawing from China, policymakers will have to focus on internal growth and consumption as the driver of economic growth.
User-generated content (UGC) exists in various formats on digital platforms, including images, audio, and videos. The capital market has turned UGC into profitable products, benefiting content creators and game companies. This reciprocal relationship presents opportunities in the digital market. However, due to current legislation and public sentiment, UGCs lack sufficient protection under intellectual property laws. This research aims to investigate the copyrightability of user-generated videos in the game industry. Specifically, it seeks to justify the copyright protection of user-generated game videos and propose potential solutions. Furthermore, this paper acknowledges live streaming recordings as a distinct type of game video. The entertainment industry's exponential growth, especially in video games, has sparked a surge in game live streams and videos among gamers. However, this has also led to copyright infringement issues, particularly with fair use defenses. The Copyright Act of 1976 grants exclusive rights, and game videos and live streams infringe on reproduction, display, public performance, and distribution rights. While recognizing the social value, the current statutory framework, like the DMCA, is ineffective. Implementing improvements like a new compulsory license would address copyright issues and foster creativity. A flexible legal standard allowing commercial and fair use would promote economic development, social harmony, and cultural enrichment, while failure to do so could hinder freedom of expression and innovation.
Since numerous nations commit to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, there is a need to examine the implications of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) principles on investment decisions. This research emphases on the violation of investment principles regarding ESG factors, specifically in relation to the maximisation of shareholders' wealth. Additionally, this paper explores the reasons behind banks considering the cessation of investments in corporations that have pledged to cut carbon emissions, despite the evidence of a positive correlation between sustainable management and stock performance. Moreover, there are concerns among many that ESG practises may be fraudulent and merely a form of greenwashing, lacking the ability to convince shareholders to consider sustainability. In this study, the primary challenges that arise in relation to ESG factors are considered, and the author also assesses the insufficient outcomes in this field that necessitate additional investigation into the actual effectiveness of ESG in promoting sustainability. ESG framework offers long-term benefits to both shareholders and stakeholders, as opposed to focusing on short-term outcomes and results. It is essential to demonstrate the significance of ESG practises and results in order to prove their value to investors. While ESG firms are more likely to withstand challenging circumstances, they may not necessarily outperform other stocks in a thriving macroeconomy.
Under the trend of economic globalization, international trade is becoming increasingly frequent. Many benefits such as natural resources and technology can be pursued by enterprises. This means that enterprises can gain more opportunities in the international market. Internationalization of enterprises is an opportunity for further development, whether it is demand financing, improving technology, or expanding market size.Chinese enterprises do not have a first-mover advantage due to their late exposure to the international market, so the methods and tactics of their international transformation are more important. This article takes Nongfu Spring, a cutting-edge enterprise in China’s mineral water and tea beverage industry, as an example to summarize its successful experience in the Chinese market and its replicable advantages in international transformation. This article also provides a comprehensive overview of the overall internationalization process of Chinese enterprises and provides specific plans for the company’s international transformation, providing valuable experience for the internationalization of other ethnic enterprises in China.
Developing a low-carbon economy plays an important role in China. This energy structure that relies too much on coal resources has become an important factor restricting the sustainable development of China’s economy and society. Therefore, developing a low-carbon economy can effectively avoid the drawbacks of China’s reliance on “high carbon” energy. However, there are many adverse effects and difficulties in exploring low-carbon energy. This paper analyzes the multi-dimensional impact of over-reliance on high-carbon energy on the structural adjustment of the energy industry, less developed areas and the transportation industry. Government should realize the requirements of low-carbon technology funds and it needs to deal with the sufferings. The overall impact of low carbon on international economy and trade make issues more prominent. To deal with these problems, the measures suggested in this article are to reduce dependence on multiple levels, improve technical level and capabilities, strengthen international cooperation and exchanges, jointly formulate policies to make carbon emissions more standardized, and optimize research and development costs to reduce unnecessary expenses and government financial support.
The modeling of high-frequency volatility is of utmost importance in comprehending market dynamics and the characteristics of risk. The adoption of high-frequency volatility modeling in the agricultural sector has the potential to enhance risk management for food production enterprises through the utilization of hedging strategies to mitigate the impact of food price changes. The GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) class of models is well-suited for the analysis and prediction of volatility in financial time series. These models effectively capture the highest level of volatility observed in the time series data. Therefore, this research utilizes one-minute trade data of the Wind Agriculture Index (886045.WI) to examine the efficacy and predictability of several GARCH class volatility models. When it comes to fitting the data within the sample, the TGARCH model demonstrates superior performance compared to both the GARCH and EGARCH models. The fluctuations in the price changes of the Wind Agriculture Index exhibit characteristics of time variability and clustering, which can be attributed to the relatively low barriers for entry and exit in the agricultural planting sector. Simultaneously, within the agricultural market, an imbalance is observed whereby the influence of positive information on price volatility surpasses that of negative information.
The evolution of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) reflects the needs of the global business environment and the pursuit of higher quality financial reporting. This paper discusses and explores major changes implemented in IFRS, specifically in the areas of revenue recognition, lease accounting, and the treatment of intangible assets. The shortcomings of the past application of IFRS standards in these aspects are presented in this paper, as well as changes and benefits after IFRS made corresponding modifications. By reviewing materials and literature, the study conducts a comparison between IFRS and the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP). These two major accounting frameworks have adopted unique methods and standards. Still, both the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) work hard together to realize international harmonization. The outcomes of this research make it clear that ongoing refinements to IFRS have significantly improved the clarity, consistency, and comparability in how financial activities are reported. Such changes have been pivotal in diminishing uncertainties and bolstering the trustworthiness of financial disclosures. Being influenced by the continuous developments in IFRS, greater transparency and accountability in financial reporting will be achieved. This has made a great contribution to helping investors in sound economic decision-making and enhancing investor confidence.
With the development of the global economy and the intensification of competition, corporate mergers have become an important trend in the development of modern enterprises, and accounting, as an important part of enterprise management, has received wide attention. In China, corporate mergers adopt the purchase method and the equity combination method. This paper first compares the purchase method and the equity combination method through literature analysis, and secondly analyzes the financial status and operating results of corporate mergers under the two methods of accounting, and further proposes that the imperfect capital markets system and unreasonable goodwill recognition measurement process have an adverse impact on the accounting under the purchase method, and points out the decline in the quality of accounting information and the possible profit manipulation space under the equity combination method. This paper finds that goodwill is the main reason for the difference between the purchase method and the equity combination method, and for the asset scale and net profit of the merged enterprise, the results calculated by the purchase method are greater than the results calculated by the equity combination method.
The incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into the realm of retail marketing signifies a significant and transformative change within the sector. This paper provides a thorough examination of the rising role of AI in the field of retail marketing, highlighting its transformative impact on customer engagement and operational effectiveness. Through a methodical examination of research articles and industry reports, the paper has discovered the diverse impact of AI on various aspects of the retail business. These include data-driven decision-making, insights into customer behavior, the enhancement of omnichannel experiences, as well as the optimization of inventory and pricing strategies. Furthermore, the paper examines the significant obstacles that AI implementation in the retail industry encounters, encompassing concerns related to data protection, financial constraints, and the ever-changing legal and ethical environment. The continuous progress of AI technology is leading to a growing recognition of its capacity to revolutionize retail marketing. This trend highlights the significance of integrating AI into retail operations, as it is no longer merely a strategic option but a necessary requirement for achieving success and maintaining a competitive edge in the industry.
In recent years, with the rise of the digital economy, various innovative marketing models have flourished in agricultural sales. Live-streaming e-commerce has become a mainstream trend, fuelling the rapid growth of rural e-commerce. Among them, New Oriental, a leading company in the education industry, has launched a live e-commerce platform for agricultural products, "Oriental Selection", to achieve transformation. Based on the theory of the 5c marketing model, this paper takes the East Buy Holding Limited(EBHL) platform as a research case study. The study concludes that the e-tailing industry of agricultural products has been developing rapidly. Under the support of rural revitalisation and other policies, e-commerce marketing breaks through the shackles of traditional agricultural product sales, directly faces the majority of consumers, obtains a broader consumer market, and promotes farmers' income and industrial structure transformation. In this paper, by analysing the advantages of the EBHL platform marketing model, the author found that the platform mainly has the benefits of live users, live scenes, anchor team, product selection and sentiment. However, the EBHL platform marketing model exists in the selection of quality is not easy to control, small scale, and other issues. This paper focuses on these phenomena and summarises the innovative initiatives in the platform's e-commerce marketing. Moreover, this paper proposes to expand the platform sales layout, increase brand marketing, optimise the industrial chain and other suggestions. The research in this paper can provide a reference for the e-commerce marketing of similar agricultural products.
A sustainable digital market hinges on digital trade rules. Yet, these rules, currently dispersed across various Regional Trade Agreements, and the conventional trade agreements of the WTO can barely align with the rapid growth of digital trade. In 2019, the WTO Plurilateral negotiation on E-commerce opened a new avenue for a multilateral digital trade agreement. This study compares three typical templates of digital trade rule within RTAs and analyzes proposals from developed and developing economies in WTO e-commerce negotiation. It seeks to reveal and resolve critical challenges in forming multilateral digital trade agreements, including concept confusion, the digital divide, and differences in regulatory requirements of data. With the opportunities presented by the WTO's E-commerce negotiations, each party shall focus on defining related concepts of digital trade to ensure clarity, incorporate discussions on technical assistance for LDCs to guarantee digital equality, engage proactively in plurilateral negotiations on data flow security and personal information protection, to formulate digital trade rules that address the regulatory concerns of all parties.
As a matter of fact, with the development of the times and the advancement of economic system reform, the activity of China's financial market has increased. As a consequence, the financial and economic development is facing new opportunities. In this case, it is necessary to give full play to the role of economic mathematics knowledge. Enterprises in their own business development, need to focus on how to strengthen the financial and economic analysis, a comprehensive display of the advantages of economic mathematics, the use of economic as well as mathematical theories, the financial and economic value of the enterprise for a period of time, usually involving the derivative, differential, function models and other knowledge, can provide support for the formation of the results of the enterprise's financial and economic analysis, which in turn helps enterprises to adapt to the changes in the financial market in a more comprehensive manner contemporarily.
In recent years, the e-commerce industry has been developing rapidly, and at the same time, the quality level of e-commerce industry development is limited by the level of supply chain technology development. As a result, the development of supply chain technology has become the core of the driving force for various enterprises to pursue development. This paper analyses the supply chain status quo of e-commerce industry, finds the problems of excess inventory leading to backlogs, high loss rate of goods leading to waste of resources, and negative impacts caused by failure to deliver on time, and proposes the establishment of perfect supply chain management norms, the establishment of incentives, and the establishment of a research department; the use of cold chain transport, multi-modal transport, the use of automated systems, the establishment of inventory systems, the upgrading of technology, the enhancement of training, regular inspection and maintenance of equipment; the enhancement of management and management of equipment. Regular inspection and maintenance of equipment; strengthening management, improving risk control, establishing a supply network, optimizing routes, and improving service quality are some of the solutions.
Live broadcasting with goods has become the mainstream form of product marketing, and the pricing problem in live broadcasting with goods has attracted attention. Based on the game model constructed by brand and online celebrity, this paper analyzes the influence of live broadcast with goods on product pricing factors. The model includes pure retail mode and adding live-stream mode. The optimal pricing of the two modes is discussed when the participants pursue the maximum profit and the factors influencing the optimal pricing are discussed. The results show: the factors that affect the pricing of products increase after adding live broadcast with goods, including the effort of the anchor, the fan conversion rate and the proportion of commission. Based on the conclusion of the study, the following suggestions are made: After adding live broadcast with goods, the brand should not be limited to the cost and demand of products when making pricing decisions; When selecting online media, the brand should consider both the effort of the anchor and the conversion rate of anchor fans; When negotiating the commission percentage with the brand, the anchors should properly measure their efforts.
The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) has been a cornerstone of modern finance theory since its introduction by William Sharpe in the 1960s. This research article explores the application of the CAPM in the field of asset management. Besides, the CAPM provides a framework for understanding the relationship between risk and return, aiding asset managers in making informed investment decisions. This article discusses the key components of the CAPM, its limitations, and its practical implications in portfolio construction, risk assessment, and performance evaluation. Through an analysis of empirical studies, it becomes evident that while the CAPM serves as a valuable tool in asset management, its assumptions and constraints must be carefully considered. As the financial landscape continues to evolve, the CAPM remains relevant in guiding asset management strategies.