Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Business and Policy Studies
Canh Thien Dang, King's College London
Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia
Science diplomacy is a novel academic concept. This project will analyse the positive function of science diplomacy in contemporary international relations and the use of science to achieve specific foreign policy objectives. This study aims to provide insight into the role of this science in external affairs work which analyses the impact of science diplomacy through a collection of journals, papers, news articles, and literature with the use of Document analysis. Even countries with mutually antagonistic political cultures may be able to approach international issues through concentrated scientific study due to the function of science diplomacy. Using the significance of science, the foreign service can influence or even meddle in the affairs of other nations. Therefore, scientific study diplomacy permits beneficial interactions between nations and the involvement of technologically and technologically powerful countries. The selection of science diplomacy is determined by the objectives of governments and diplomatic agencies.
Option, as an important financial derivative, has received more and more attention from investors in recent years. This paper includes three parts, the first part introduces the concept of options, including the birth and history of options, the trading of options, and different types of options. Then it discusses the history of option pricing and two typical and classic option pricing models and then introduces implied volatility. The second part of this paper introduces the specific development of the option pricing models, the correction process of option pricing models, and volatility models. Different types of volatility, and their comparisons are included. And this paper also discusses the two functions of implied volatility, one is predicting the future and the other is for risk management and portfolio management. The third part concludes the first two-part and discusses the recent progress of option pricing and its volatility.
Carbon trading is increasingly being adopted as a policy tool to limit greenhouse gas emissions. This paper empirically explores the international and domestic carbon markets in the first half of 2022. International relations, climate, energy, and unexpected events can impact the Chinese carbon market. The study revealed that trading activity in the Chinese carbon market needs to be improved. Furthermore, the number of critical emitters in China's carbon market varies significantly by region.
This work analyzed how marketing strategies for businesses impacted consumers’ levels of anxiety or confidence, encouraging purchasing behaviors. By conducting research on consumers who are experiencing social appearance anxiety (SAA) and analyzing two cases studies (Fenty’s Body Confidence-Oriented Marketing Strategy and Brandy Melville’s Controversial Appearance-Anxiety Marketing Strategy), our study concludes that social appearance anxiety-oriented marketing strategies have negative consequences on both consumers and companies. For the consumers, SAA can lead to mental/physical damage. For the businesses, the use of SAA can result in a loss of reputation. Finally, this report offers several recommendations for businesses’ marketing campaigns, and these recommendations can improve profits in the long run without harming consumers or risking their standing in the market.
The Chinese ex-pat relocation market is a huge and growing market with remaining problems that need to be solved. To help entrepreneurs get a better start in this golden market, this paper will disclose the best business model, B2B or B2C, that companies can choose to enter the market. Interviews, surveys, and competitive comparisons are used as methods to explore what service customers are eager for and what competitors in the market have done. After analyzing customer needs, the business model of competitors and differences between the B2B and B2C business models in the Chinese ex-pat relocation market, and with the discussion about the desirability, feasibility, and viability risks of the two business models, it is concluded that B2C is the best model to choose, because of its long-term development and revenue. Also, the B2C business model faces less risk when the whole market environment become to change.
Combining the latest era background, this paper mainly focuses on the growth of secondary private equity funds in China's capital market. Starting with the current macro form and development status, it will provide an overview of the private equity market and secondary funds, followed by an introduction to the development and status of S funds in the global capital market. Following that, author will go over the history and current state of S funds in China's capital market. Analyze the advantages and characteristics of the S fund based on its theoretical essence and actual business. Finally, watch for the development of secondary private equity funds in China. As one of the few articles on secondary private equity funds and transactions, the discussion in this paper enriches the content and literature of secondary private equity investment.
With the popularization of the Internet and a variety of social media, an increasing amount of investment was made in the market, and a new form of self-media marketing emerged. And as the market continues to grow and expand, some practitioners have become "celebrities" in this market, which we call an influencer. Different from the traditional celebrity or movie star. They are more engaged on the internet instead of offline activities through the "self-media" they mainly established by themselves. They gain financial benefits by advertising their own brand or endorsing other existing brands using their "celebrity" (or influencer) effect. The fan economy is booming because of this environment. Some companies have significantly improved their popularity, attracted lots of attention through the fan economy, and obtained huge profits. However, some negative content and value orientation in the fan economy may lead to threats to both companies and social stabilization. This paper will illustrate research on the "fan economy" in self-media marketing. Based on the analysis of different "self-media" platforms domestically and abroad. Demonstrating how companies should better seize the benefit and avoid the negative impact brought by this new economy in such an era.
This essay investigated the network economy as well as the factors that influence the marketing strategy of FMCG clothing brands. Network economy is becoming a common trend, and in the last twenty years have witnessed a huge growth in network economy. The next decade is likely to see a considerable change in the marketing strategy of FMCG clothing brands. This article aims to analyze how FMCG clothing brands have adapted to the network economy by changing their marketing strategies. It also finds out how companies are applying marketing strategies to make the network economy an opportunity for the FMCG apparel industry.
After centuries of development, it has been proven that research and development (R&D) and innovation are the driving forces for a country to sustain its economic development and they are also essential to the development of companies. Scientific and technological innovation is strategic support to improve productivity and comprehensive national power, so companies' investment in innovation is increasing year by year. The main output of enterprises is concentrated in the fields of utility models, designs, and applied technology research and development. At the same time, national government policy has placed emphasis on the development of enterprise content and technological innovation, implementing a dual incentive system for enterprise R&D and innovation. This move has helped to energise companies in terms of entrepreneurship and innovation, while also reducing the cost of innovation and driving many new companies to invest in R&D. In this paper, the author discusses whether R&D innovation helps companies to grow by investigating the company’s size, governance structure, financial report, and A-share market returns. It is found that R&D innovation is a good driver of business development and can bring advantages to companies.
Logistics involves the process of coordinating and moving resources – people, materials, inventory, and equipment from place to place. This paper focuses on the logistics market from the outbreak of COVID-19 to the present. The purpose of this research is to show logistics companies' perception of development and innovation during the COVID-19 pandemic. All findings were based on the data from specialised data research faculties and annual reports of logistics corporations, and a comparison of the company strategy applied before and during the pandemic was made. This helps to assess the companies from different aspects, such as challenges, preventive strategies, and future development. Yet, in the face of the pandemic, there was a lack of information on how logistics companies improve their business model. The results of this research suggest that the logistics company is severely impacted especially in the aviation industry, however, due to travel restrictions, companies are mainly focusing on the cargo transportation business.
The Daniel-Hirshleifer-Sun (DHS) is a three-factor model based on the investor’s psychology. It supplements the market factors of the CAPM model with two behavioral factors that capture commonalities in mispricing resulting from psychological biases. The DHS method focuses on two psychological biases affecting asset prices: overconfidence and limited attention. According to Daniel, Hirshleifer, and Sun, overconfidence in the investor tends to induce commonality in long-horizon mispricing.In contrast, the inattention of the investor tends to induce commonality in short-horizon mispricing. In this strategy, assets are priced according to the DHS model, and the unexplained return generated from this model is traded. According to the back-test, the explanation power of the DHS model is limited in Chinses market. As a result, the arbitrage strategy based on this model cannot generate a decent return in the long run. However, this strategy generates a significant positive return in turbulent market conditions. During these periods, investors tend to panic, and their psychology is especially unstable, so the two behavioral factors can explain the return efficiently.
This paper makes an event study on the Russo-Ukrainian War effect of the stock return, including that of the S&P500, renewable energy industry, military industry, and catering industry, with a time window of 29 days (39 days for Tesla’s event). This article will gain the normal and abnormal returns by using linear regression and the least square method. Then, the hypothesis test will be conducted using the Summation of the abnormal rate of return (CAR). The result will be shown by whether the cumulative abnormal return breaks the confidence interval according to the graph. Research results show that even though the war harms the economy, it does not entirely reduce the stock return. This empirical study would be helpful for the investors to make their investment strategy during the War period.
Security issues have always been a significant threat to the safety of citizens in every country, and many of these re-arrested criminals have negatively impacted social security. Therefore, predicting and studying the factors of a criminal's re-entry to prison will significantly help maintain social order and improve the civil society happiness index. This study, it will show what elements are predicted to influence a criminal's return to prison and what aspects will have a higher proportion and weight based on the collected data set. In the dataset, each re-admission inmate is categorized according to gender, age range, race, records, etc. Use the Logistics model and OLS model to build a model to predict what factors most directly lead to a criminal being arrested and imprisoned again. Data research has proved that the "number of priors" is the factor that most affects the recidivism rate of criminals.
This paper summarizes four common problems in the workplace through a study of the Rio Tinto workplace: sexual harassment, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and workplace bullying. These problems not only cause personal physical and psychological distress, but also result in persistent emotional and psychological hostile treatment of employees, taking out negative emotions on people around them, customers or colleagues. This can ultimately lead to the development of disruptive behavior in the workplace, further impacting company effectiveness. In the next part of the article, this paper proposes solutions to the above problems. Specifically, it is not only the individual level that needs to make corresponding efforts to prevent suffering from similar unfair phenomena, but also the state, society and workplace need to make corresponding efforts to improve the workplace environment and further enhance the productivity of companies and the work experience of employees.
The emergence of financial derivatives complicates traditional financial products and increases financial market volatility. Individuals and financial institutions are both exposed to more complex and uncontrollable risks in this environment. Because of the risk's uncertainty, we must use reasonable methods to predict and estimate it in order to achieve the goal of risk control. This paper discusses three new VaR (Value at Risk) models that have emerged in recent years based on the ARCH family model using a method of literature review. The ARMA-EGARCH model, for example, combines the ARMA model to describe constant variance time series and the EGARCH model to describe heteroscedasticity phenomena, and theoretically can better describe the fluctuations of financial time series and obtain an independent time series with the same distribution. The sequence is processed using extreme value theory, which is the ARMA-EGARCH-GPPD model, in conjunction with the GPD model. We used the ARMA-EGARCH-semi-parametric method in conjunction with the historical simulation method and the parameter method to avoid cumbersome quantile calculation because the model algorithm is more complex. The generalized EWMA risk value prediction model has more advantages for financial data with large peaks.
Long before the birth of international environmental law, disputes over transboundary environmental damage have long existed in global trade and investment. Since the promulgation of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, with the arrival of the Period of Liberalization in international investment, the environmental issues involved in cross-border investment have skyrocketed, and international judicial bodies such as the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea have adjudicated a number of disputes over transboundary environmental damage. These “post-Rio” transboundary environmental damage disputes are characterized by complex afflictions, wide scope and serious damage. At this stage of adjudication, international judicial institutions have not developed relatively stable standards, principles and systems for ex post facto remedies for transboundary environmental damage. From the perspective of state responsibility, this paper analyzes the issue of transboundary environmental damage theoretically and practically, and explores the attribution, standards, and requirements of responsibility for cross-border environmental damage arising from international investment and the formation of the ex post facto remedy system, in order to provide reference for the establishment of a more sound and refined remedy mechanism of transboundary environmental damage in future international investment practice.
We studied the optimal weighting allocation for a portfolio of stocks in China's new energy vehicle industry, using data on circulation market value, price-to-earnings ratio P/E, growth of net profit after deductions, and institutional position share of the new energy industry for the three years 2019-2021. The return was also considered from the above four dimensions. Combining the above four dimensions, a better model for determining the weight of the new energy vehicle stock portfolio is obtained.
This paper uses the daily data of the CSI Mainland New Energy Index, WTI crude oil price, and CSI 500 risk premium from January 2019 to September 2022 as samples to explore the interrelationship of the above variables using the Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality test, impulse response, and variance decomposition. The results show that in the short run, international crude oil price and risk premium have a significant effect on the share price of new energy companies; in the long run, global crude oil price cannot affect the share price of new energy companies, as well as international crude oil price and share price of new energy companies have a significant effect on the risk premium.
The availability heuristic refers to individuals making decisions based on the availability of relevant events as a shortcut. The paper focuses on the availability heuristic and its own unique information processing mode through literature reading and analysis. According to the discussion of the application, it can be concluded that the availability heuristic affects individual risk cognition and decision-making behavior. Future research should explore the root causes, explore the relationship between the availability heuristic and other phenomena, and expand the research field of its application.
Tourism in many parts of China has been hit hard by the Covid-19 outbreak. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact on the tourism industry in China before and after the epidemic, the current situation of tourism shutdown and damage, and the impact on the overall tourism market. In addition, the study analyzes the current state of the population's willingness to travel. The paper will use the tourism industry in Sanya and Daqing as case studies. In order to get rid of the impact of the epidemic as soon as possible, Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises have to come up with reasonable and effective measures to cope with it. For this reason, China should work together to fight the epidemic and make a concerted effort for the early recovery of tourism.